Folia Parasitologica, vol. 51 (2004), issue 2/3

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 215-220 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.026

Extensive release of an antigen associated with the sporogonic stages of Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) is detected by a heterologous antibody raised to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea)

David J. Morris1, Mansour El-Matbouli2, Alexandra Adams1
1 Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland FK9 4LA, UK
2 Institute for Zoology, Fish Biology and Fish Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig Maximillian University, Munich, Germany

Monoclonal antibody B4 (mAb B4) was previously developed to the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Canning, Curry, Feist, Longshaw et Okamura, 1999, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease of salmonids. Here we describe the reaction of mAb B4 against Myxobolus cerebralis Hofer, 1903, the parasite that causes 'whirling disease' in salmonids. Tissues examined were collected from experimentally infected rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (O.F. Müller), the two hosts involved in the life cycle of M. cerebralis. Paraffin sections of infected rainbow trout taken at 4 h and 3, 10, 17 and 54 days post-exposure to infective M. cerebralis actinospores were immunohistochemically stained with mAb B4. Longitudinal sections through infected T. tubifex sampled 120 days post-exposure to M. cerebralis myxospores were also examined using this method. The only phase of the M. cerebralis life cycle that expressed the mAb B4 antigen was during sporogenesis in the salmonid host. The immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the antigen was released into the tissues surrounding the spore and sporogonic stages of the parasite. The localisation of the antigen was diffuse in the fish, suggesting that the possible effect of M. cerebralis infection is extensive through the head tissues and not limited to areas of cartilage destruction as previously thought.

Keywords: PKX, Tetracapsula, whirling disease, antibody

Received: November 28, 2003; Accepted: April 20, 2004; Published: June 1, 2004


References

  1. ADAMS A., MARIN DE MATEO M. 1994: Immunohistochemical detection of fish pathogens. In: J.S. Stolen, T.C. Fletcher, A.F. Rowley, D.P. Anderson, S.L. Kaattari, J.T. Zelikoff and S.A. Smith (Eds.), Techniques in Fish Immunology 3. SOS publications, New Jersey, pp. 133- 144
  2. El-MATBOULI M., HOFFMANN R.W., MANDOK C. 1995: Light and electron microscopic observations on the route of the triactinomyxon-sporoplasm of Myxobolus cerebralis from epidermis into rainbow trout cartilage. J. Fish Biol. 46: 919-935
  3. El-MATBOULI M., HOFFMANN R.W., SCHOEL H., McDOWELL T.S., HEDRICK R.P. 1999: Whirling disease: host specificity and interaction between the actinosporean stage of Myxobolus cerebralis and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Dis. Aquat. Org. 35: 1-12 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. GRIFFIN B.R., DAVIS E.M. 1978: Myxosoma cerebralis: detection of circulating antibodies in infected rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 35: 1186-1190 Go to original source...
  5. HAMILTON A.J., CANNING E.U. 1988: The production of mouse anti-Myxosoma cerebralis antiserum from Percollpurified spores and its use in immunofluorescent labelling of Historesin-embedded cartilage derived from infected rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. J. Fish Dis. 11: 662-668 Go to original source...
  6. MARIN de MATEO M., McGEORGE J., MORRIS D., KENT M.L. 1996: Comparative studies of PKX and Sphaerospora spp. from salmonids using lectin and monoclonal antibody staining techniques. J. Fish Dis. 19: 55-63 Go to original source...
  7. MARKIW M.E. 1989: Salmonid whirling disease: myxosporean and actinosporean stages cross-react in direct fluorescent antibody test. J. Fish Dis. 12: 137-141 Go to original source...
  8. MARKIW M.E., WOLF K. 1983: Myxosoma cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) etiologic agent of salmonid whirling disease requires tubificid worm (Annelida: Oligochaeta) in its life cycle. J. Protozool. 30: 561-564 Go to original source...
  9. MORRIS D.J. 1996: Studies on proliferative kidney disease using monoclonal antibody probes. PhD thesis, University of Stirling, UK, 180 pp
  10. MORRIS D.J., ADAMS A., RICHARDS R.H. 1997: Studies of the PKX parasite in rainbow trout via immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy. J. Aquat. Anim. Health 9: 265-273 Go to original source...
  11. PETCHSUPA N. 2002: Studies on proliferative kidney disease with particular reference to vaccine development. PhD thesis, University of Stirling, UK, 270 pp
  12. ROSE J.D., MARRS G.S., LEWIS C., SCHISLER G. 2000: Whirling disease behaviour and its relation to pathology of brain stem and spinal cord in rainbow trout. J. Aquat. Anim. Health 12: 107-118 Go to original source...
  13. WOLF K., MARKIW M.E., HILTUNEN J.K. 1986: Salmonid whirling disease: Tubifex tubifex (Mueller) identified as the essential oligochaete in the protozoan life cycle. J. Fish Dis. 9: 499-501 Go to original source...