Folia Parasitologica, vol. 55 (2008), issue 2

Folia Parasitologica 55[2] 150-154 (2008) | 10.14411/fp.2008.020

Two ways of experimental infection of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

Lenka Fišerová, Kateřina Černá, Helena Horká, Jan Kopecký
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic

A previously reported procedure for the introduction of Borrelia spirochetes into tick larvae by immersion in a suspension of spirochetes was tested on Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks and three of the most medically important European Borrelia genomic species, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii. The procedure was compared with "classical" infection of nymphs by feeding on infected mice. Both methods yielded comparable results (infection rate 44-65%) with the exception of B. afzelii, which produced better results using the immersion method (44%) compared with feeding on infected mice (16%). Nymphs infected by the immersion method at the larval stage were able to transmit the infection to naïve mice as shown by serology and PCR detection of spirochetal DNA in organs. The immersion method is faster than feeding on infected mice and provides more reproducible conditions for infection. It can be exploited for studies on both pathogen transmission and Borrelia-vector interactions.

Keywords: Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, tick, Ixodes ricinus

Received: October 26, 2007; Accepted: December 7, 2007; Published: June 1, 2008


References

  1. BROUQUI P., BACELLAR F., BARANTON G., BIRTLES R.J., BJOERSDORFF A., BLANCO J.R., CARUSO G., CINCO M., FOURNIER P.E., FRANCAVILLA E., JENSENIUS M., KAZAR J., LAFERL H., LAKOS A., LOTRIC FURLAN S., MAURIN M., OTEO J.A., PAROLA P., PEREZ-EID C., PETER O., POSTIC D., RAOULT D., TELLEZ A., TSELENTIS Y., WILSKE B. 2004: Guidelines for the diagnosis of tick-borne bacterial diseases in Europe. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10: 1108-1132 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. CHARREL R.N., ATTOUI H., BUTENKO A.M., CLEGG J.C., DEUBEL V., FROLOVA T.V., GOULD E.A., GRITSUN T.S., HEINZ F.X., LABUDA M., LASHKEVICH V.A., LOKTEV V., LUNDKVIST A., LVOV D.V., MANDL C.W., NIEDRIG M., PAPA A., PETROV V.S., PLYUSNIN A., RANDOLPH S., SUSS J., ZLOBIN V.I., DE LAMBALLERIE X. 2004: Tick-borne virus diseases of human interest in Europe. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10: 1040-1055 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. CRIPPA M., RAIS O., GERN L. 2002: Investigations on the mode and dynamics of transmission and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2: 3-9
  4. DE SILVA A.M., FIKRIG E. 1995: Growth and migration of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ticks during blood feeding. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53: 397-404 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  5. ELIAS A.F., SCHMUTZHARD J., STEWART P.E., SCHWAN T.G., ROSA P. 2002: Population dynamics of a heterogeneous Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in an experimental mouse-tick infectious cycle. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 114: 557-561 Go to PubMed...
  6. FINGERLE V., RAUSER S., HAMER B., KAHL O., HEIMERL C., SCHULTE-SPECHTEL U., GERN L., WILSKE B. 2002: Dynamics of dissemination and outer surface protein expression of different European Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains in artificially infected Ixodes ricinus nymphs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 1456-1463 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  7. HUBALEK Z., HALOUZKA J. 1998: Prevalence rates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. Parasitol. Res. 84: 167-172 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  8. LIEBISCH G., SOHNS B., BAJTECH W. 1998: Detection and typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks attached to human skin by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3355- 3358 Go to PubMed...
  9. NUTTALL P.A., LABUDA M. 2004: Tick-host interactions: salivaactivated transmission. Parasitology 129: S177-189 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. PEAVEY C.A., LANE R.S. 1996: Comparison of infectivities of six tick-derived isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi for rodents and ticks. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 71-75 Go to PubMed...
  11. PECHOVA J., STEPANOVA G., KOVAR L., KOPECKY J. 2002: Tick salivary gland extract-activated transmission of Borrelia afzelii spirochaetes. Folia Parasitol. 49: 153-159 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  12. PIESMAN J. 1993: Standard system for infecting ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. J. Med. Entomol. 30: 199-203 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  13. PIESMAN J. 1995: Dispersal of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi to salivary glands of feeding nymphal Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 32: 519-521 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  14. PIESMAN J., OLIVER J.R., SINSKY J.R. 1990: Growth kinetic of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) in vector tick (Ixodes dammini). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 42: 352-357 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  15. POLICASTRO P.F., SCHWAN T.G. 2003: Experimental infection of Ixodes scapularis larvae (Acari: Ixodidae) by immersion in low passage cultures of Borrelia burgdorferi. J. Med. Entomol. 40: 364-370 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  16. RAUTER C., HARTUNG T. 2005: Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe: a metaanalysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 7203-7216. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  17. STEPANOVA-TRESOVA G., KOPECKY J., KUTHEJLOVA M. 1999: Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Southern Bohemia using monoclonal antibodies. Zbl. Bakteriol. 289: 797-806 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  18. TYLEWSKA-WIERZBANOWSKA S., CHMIELEWSKI T. 2002: Limitation of serologic testing for Lyme borreliosis: evaluation of ELISA and Western blot in comparison with PCR and culture methods. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 114: 601-605 Go to PubMed...
  19. ZHIOUA E., AESCHLIMANN A., GERN L. 1994: Infection of fieldcollected Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) larva with Borrelia burgdorferi in Switzerland. J. Med. Entomol. 31: 763-766 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...