Folia Parasitologica, vol. 56 (2009), issue 1

Folia Parasitologica 56[1] 55-63 (2009) | 10.14411/fp.2009.009

Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae), a pathogenic parasite of the arapaima Arapaima gigas (Osteichthyes)

Cláudia Portes Santos1, František Moravec2
1 Laboratório de Avaliação e Promoção da Saúde Ambiental, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Fiocruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2 Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic

The nematode Goezia spinulosa (Diesing, 1839) (Raphidascarididae) is redescribed based on specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the naturally infected arapaima Arapaima gigas (Schinz) from the Mexiana Island, Amazon River Delta, Brazil. Light and electron microscopy examinations revealed some previously unreported or inaccurately described morphological features in the species, such as the position of the excretory pore, phasmids in the male or the number (4) of postanal papillae. The morphology of G. spinulosa is compared with that of other four congeneric species parasitizing freshwater fishes in South America. This nematode seems to be one of the most pathogenic parasites of A. gigas in the Mexiana Island, which are responsible for a high mortality of cultured arapaima fingerlings. Apparently, the source of G. spinulosa infection for arapaima fingerlings cultured in tanks was the infected plankton collected in the localities inhabited by wild arapaimas. Therefore, control measures should include the sterilisation of the plankton before its use as food for fish. A rare infection of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Dioctophymatidae) in arapaima fingerlings was also found (new host record); the larvae were inside swellings on the body surface.

Keywords: parasitic nematode, Goezia spinulosa, freshwater fish, Arapaima gigas, aquaculture, Amazonia, Brazil

Received: October 23, 2008; Accepted: January 9, 2009; Published: March 1, 2009


References

  1. ANDERSON R.C. 2000: Nematode Parasites of Vertebrates. Their Development and Transmission. 2nd edition. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, 650 pp
  2. BAYLIS H.A. 1927: Some parasitic worms from Arapaima gigas (teleostean fish) with a description of Philometra senticosa n. sp. (Filarioidea). Parasitology 19: 35-47 Go to original source...
  3. COSTA H.M.A. DE, GUIMARAES M.P., CABRAL D.D., MUNDIM M.J.S. 1995: Scanning electron microscopic observations on Goezia spinulosa (Diesing, 1839) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Arapaima gigas (Cuvier, 1817). Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 90: 703-705 Go to original source...
  4. DIESING C.M. 1839: Neue Gattungen von Binnenwuermern nebst einem Nachtrage zur Monographie der Amphistomen. Ann. Wiener Mus. Naturgesch. 2: 219-242
  5. DRASCHE R. VON 1884: Revision der in der Nematoden-Sammlung des k.k. zoologischen Hofkabinetes befindlichen Original-Exemplare Diesing's und Molin's. Verh. Kaiser. Koenig. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 33: 107-118
  6. EBERHARD M.L., HURWITZ H., SUN A.M., COLETTA D. 1989: Intestinal perforation caused by larval Eustrongylides (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) in New Jersey. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40: 648-650 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  7. FREITAS J.T. DE, LENT H. 1946: Infestacao de apaiaris "Astronotus ocellatus" (Agassiz) pelo nematodeo "Goezia spinulosa" (Diesing, 1839). Rev. Bras. Biol. 6: 215-222
  8. FROESE R., PAULY D. 2008: FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication, www.fishbase.org, version 4/2008
  9. HAMANN M.I. 1984: Nematodos parasitos de peces pimelodidos del rio Parana Medio, Republica Argentina (Pisces, Pimelodidae). Neotropica 30: 55-62
  10. MARTINS M.L., TAVARES -DIAS M., FUJIMOTO R.Y., ONAKA E.M., NOMURA D.T. 2004: Haematological alterations of Leporinus macrocephalus (Osteichthyes: Anostomidae) naturally infected by Goezia leporini (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in fish pond. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 56: 640-646 Go to original source...
  11. MARTINS M.L., YOSHITOSHI E.R. 2003: A new nematode species Goezia leporini n. sp. (Anisakidae) from cultured freshwater fish Leporinus macrocephalus (Anostomidae) in Brazil. Braz. J. Biol. 63: 497-506 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  12. MORAVEC F. 1970: Studies on the development of Raphidascaris acus (Bloch, 1779) (Nematoda: Heterocheilidae). Acta Soc. Zool. Bohemoslov. 34: 33-49
  13. MORAVEC F. 1994: Nematodes of Freshwater Fishes of Europe. Academia and Kluwer Acad. Publishers, Prague and Dordrecht, Boston, London, 473 pp
  14. MORAVEC F. 1998: Nematodes of Freshwater Fishes of the Neotropical Region. Academia, Prague, 464 pp
  15. MORAVEC F., KOHN A., FERNANDES B.M.M. 1994: Two new species of the genus Goezia, G. brasiliensis sp. n. and G. brevicaeca sp. n. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), from freshwater fishes in Brazil. Folia Parasitol. 41: 271-278 Go to PubMed...
  16. MOZGOVOY A.A., SHAKHMATOVA V.I., SEMENOVA M.K. 1971: [On the life cycle of Goezia ascaroides (Ascaridata: Goeziidae), a nematode of freshwater fish]. Sbor. rabot po gelmintologii, Publ. House Kolos, Moscow, pp. 259-265. (In Russian.)
  17. RASHEED S. 1965: On a remarkable new nematode, Lappetascaris lutjani gen. et sp. n. (Anisakidae: Ascaridoidea) from marine fishes of Karachi and an account of Thynnascaris inquies (Linton, 1901) n. comb. and Goezia intermedia n. sp. J. Helminthol. 39: 313-342 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  18. SANTOS C.P., GIBSON D.I. 2007: Nilonema gymnarchi Khalil, 1960 and N. senticosum (Baylis, 1922) (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea): Gondwana relicts? Syst. Parasitol. 67: 225-234 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  19. SANTOS C.P., MORAVEC F. 2009a: Camallanus tridentatus (Drasche) (Nematoda: Camallanidae): new taxonomically important morphological data. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 104: 93-99
  20. SANTOS C.P., MORAVEC F. 2009b: Tissue-dwelling philometrid nematodes of the fish Arapaima gigas in Brazil. J. Helminthol., in press
  21. SANTOS C.P., MORAVEC F., VENTURIERI R. 2008: Capillostrongyloides arapaimae sp. n. (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a new intestinal parasite of the arapaima Arapaima gigas from the Brazilian Amazon. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 103: 392-395 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  22. SANTOS E., VICENTE J.J., JARDIM C.R. 1979: Helmintos de peixes de rios amazonicos da Colecao Helmintologica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. II. Nematoda. Atas Soc. Biol. Rio de J. 20: 11-19
  23. THATCHER V.E. 2006: Amazon Fish Parasites. 2nd edition. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, 508 pp
  24. TRAVASSOS L., KOHN A. 1965: Lista dos helmintos de peixes encontrados na Estacao Experimental da Biologia e Piscicultura de Emas, Pirassununga, Estado de Sao Paulo. Pap. Avuls. Dep. Zool. S. Paulo 17: 35-52
  25. VENTURIERI R., BERNARDINO G. 1999: Pirarucu: Especie ameacada pode ser salva atraves do cultivo. Rev. Panorama Aquicult., maio/junho, pp. 13-21