Folia Parasitologica, vol. 56 (2009), issue 3

Folia Parasitologica 56[3] 153-166 (2009) | 10.14411/fp.2009.019

Coccidia of rabbit: a review

Michal Pakandl
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic

This article summarises the current knowledge of the rabbit coccidia and the disease they cause. Various aspects, such as life cycles, localisation in the host, pathology and pathogenicity, immunity and control, are discussed.

Keywords: Apicomplexa, rabbit coccidia, review article, life cycles, pathology, immunity, coccidiosis control

Received: June 4, 2009; Accepted: August 12, 2009; Published: September 1, 2009


References

  1. Al-Attar M.A., Fernando M.A. 1987: Transport of Eimeria necatrix sporozoites in the chicken: effects of irritants injected intraperitoneally. J. Parasitol. 73: 494-502 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Ball S.J., Allen I., Daszak P. 1990: Transfer of extraintestinal stages of Eimeria vermiformis in the mouse. J. Parasitol. 76: 424-425 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Barriga O.O., Arnoni J.V. 1979: Eimeria stiedae: Weight, oocyst output, and hepatic function of rabbits with graded infections. Exp. Parasitol. 48: 407-414 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Barriga O.O., Arnoni J.V. 1981: Patho-physiology of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits. Vet. Parasitol. 8: 201-210 Go to original source...
  5. Bedrnik P., Martinez J.J. 1976: [Efficacy of different coccidiostatics on intestinal species of rabbit coccidia.] Veterinaria SPOFA 4: 164-174. (In Czech.)
  6. Bombeke A., Okerman F., Moermans R. 1977: La valeur des coccidiostatiques Whitsyn 10 et Coyden 25 dans les aliments pour lapins de boucherie. Rev. Agric. 3: 749-760
  7. Carvalho J.C. 1942: Eimeria neoleporis n. sp. occurring naturally in the cottontail and transmissible to the tame rabbit. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 18: 103-134
  8. Cere N., Humbert J.F., Licois D., Corvione M., Afanassieff M., Chanteloup N. 1996: A new approach for the identification and the diagnosis of Eimeria media parasite of rabbit. Exp. Parasitol. 82: 132-138 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  9. Cere N., Licois D., Humbert J.F. 1995: study of the inter- and intra-specific variation of Eimeria spp. from the rabbit using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Parasitol. Res. 81. 324-328 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Cerna Z., Senaud J. 1971: Some peculiarities of the fine structure of merozoites of Eimeria stiedai. Folia Parasitol. 18: 177-178 Go to PubMed...
  11. Chapman M.P. 1948: The use of sulphaquinoxaline in the control of liver coccidiosis in domestic rabbits. Vet. Med. 43: 375-379 Go to PubMed...
  12. Cheissin E.M. 1940: [Rabbit coccidiosis. III. Developmental cycle of Eimeria magna.] Uch. Zap. Len. Gos. Inst. Im. Gertsena 30: 65-91. (In Russian.)
  13. Cheissin E.M. 1947a: [Coccidia of the rabbit intestine.] Uch. Zap. Len. Gos. Inst. Im. Gertsena 51: 1-229. (In Russian.)
  14. Cheissin E.M. 1947b: [New species of rabbit intestinal coccidium.] Dokl. AN SSSR 55: 181-183. (In Russian.)
  15. Cheissin E.M. 1948: [Development of two rabbit intestinal coccidia Eimeria piriformis and E. intestinalis nom. nov.] Uch. Zap. Karelo-Finsk. Univ. III, 3: 179-187. (In Russian.)
  16. Cheissin E.M. 1960: [Cytological observation of the life cycles of rabbit coccidia.] In: Voprosy tsytologii i protistologii 1960. Izdatelstvo AN SSSR, Moskva-Leningrad, pp. 258-276. (In Russian.)
  17. Cheissin E.M. 1967: [Life cycles of the coccidia of domestic animals.] Izdatelstvo Nauka, Leningrad, 192 pp. (In Russian.)
  18. Cheissin E.M. 1968: On the distinctness of the species Eimeria neoleporis Carvalho, 1942 from the cottontail rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsii and Eimeria coecicola Cheissin, 1947 from the tame rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. Acta Protozool. 6: 5-12
  19. Clark W.M., Hammond D.M. 1969: Development of Eimeria auburnensis in cell cultures. J. Protozool. 14: 663-674 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  20. Coudert P. 1978: Evaluation comparative de l'efficacite de 10 medicaments contre 2 coccidioses graves du lapin. Comm. No. 31, Journees de la Recherche Cunicole, Toulouse, avril 1978
  21. Coudert P. 1981: Chemoprophylaxe von Darm- und Gallengangskokzidiosen beim Kaninchen. 4. Tagung der Fachgruppe Kleintierkrankheiten in Verbindung mit dem Institut fuer Kleintierzucht der Fal und der Deutschen Gruppe der WRSA, Celle, 18.-20. Juni 1981, pp. 106-121
  22. Coudert P., Licois D., Drouet-Viard F. 1995: Eimeria species and strains of the rabbits. In: J. Eckert, R. Braun, M.W. Shirley and P. Coudert (Eds.), Guidelines on techniques in coccidiosis research. European Commission, Directorate-General XII, Science, Research and Development Environment Research Programme, pp. 52-73
  23. Coudert P., Licois D., Provot F., Drouet-Viard F. 1993: Eimeria sp. from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus): pathogenicity and immunogenicity of Eimeria intestinalis. Parasitol. Res. 79: 186-190 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  24. Coudert P., Naciri M., Drouet-Viard F., Licois D. 1991: Mammalian coccidiosis: natural resistance of suckling rabbits. 2nd Conference COST-Action 1989, 2-5 April 1991, Muenchenwiler, Switzerland
  25. Danek J., Sevcik B., Strosova Z., Firmanova A., Vyhnalek J. 1978: The use of Sulfakombin in suppression of rabbit coccidiosis. Biol. Chem. Vet. 24. 151-169
  26. Danforth H.D., Hammond D.M. 1972: Merogony in multinucleate merozoites of Eimeria magna Perard, 1925. J. Protozool. 19: 454-457 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  27. Drouet-Viard F., Coudert P., Licois D., Boivin M. 1997a: Acquired protection of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) against coccidiosis using a precocious line of Eimeria magna, effect of vaccine dose and age at vaccination. Vet. Parasitol. 69: 197-201 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  28. Drouet-Viard F., Coudert P., Licois D., Boivin M. 1997b: Vaccination against Eimeria magna coccidiosis using spray dispersion of precocious line oocysts in the nest box. Vet. Parasitol. 70: 61-66 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  29. Drouet-Viard F., Licois D., Provot F., Coudert P. 1994: The invasion of rabbit intestinal tract by Eimeria intestinalis sporozoites. Parasitol. Res. 80: 706-707 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  30. Duerr U. 1972: Life cycle of Eimeria stiedai. Acta Vet. Acad. Sci. Hung. 19: 101-103
  31. Duerr U., Pellerdy L. 1969: The susceptibility of suckling rabbits to infection with coccidia. Acta Vet. Acad. Sci. Hung. 19: 453-462 Go to PubMed...
  32. Eckert J., Taylor M., Catchpole J., Licois D., Coudert P., Bucklar H. 1995: Morphological characteristics of oocyts. In: J. Eckert, R. Braun, M.W. Shirley and P. Coudert (Eds.), Guidelines on techniques in coccidiosis research. European Commission, Directorate-General XII, Science, Research and Development Environment Research Programme, pp. 103-119
  33. Fernando M.A., Rose M.E., Millard B.J. 1987: Eimeria spp. of the domestic fowl: the migration of sporozoites intra- and extraenterically. J. Parasitol. 73: 561-567 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  34. Fitzgerald P.R. 1970: New findings on the life cycle of Eimeria stiedae. J. Parasitol. 56, II, Part 1: 100-101
  35. Fitzgerald P.R. 1972: Efficacy of monensin or amprolium 1972 in the prevention of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits. J. Protozool. 19: 332-334 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  36. Gomez-Bautista M., Rojo -Vazquez F.A. 1986: Chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of hepatic coccidiosis with sulphamethoxine and pyrimethamine. Res. Vet. Sci. 40: 28-32
  37. Gregory M.W., Catchpole J. 1986: Coccidiosis in rabbits: the pathology of Eimeria flavescens infection. Int. J. Parasitol. 16: 131-145 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  38. Gwyther M.J., Dick J.W. 1976: Efficacy of monensin and sulfaquinoxaline against coccidium, Eimeria stiedai, in rabbits. Poult. Sci. 55: 1594.
  39. Haberkorn A. 1970: Die Entwicklung von Eimeria falciformis (Eimer 1870) in der weissen Maus (Mus musculus). Z. Parasitenkd. 34: 49-67 Go to original source...
  40. Hein B., Laemmler G. 1978: Alteration of enzyme activities in serum of rabbits infected with Eimeria stiedai. Z. Parasitenkd. 57: 199-211 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  41. Horton R. J. 1967: The route of migration of Eimeria stiedae (Lindeman, 1865) sporozoites between the duodenum and bile ducts of the rabbit. Parasitology 57: 9-17 Go to original source...
  42. Jeffers T.K. 1975: Attenuation of Eimeria tenella through selection of precociousness J. Parasitol. 61: 1083-1090 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  43. Jelinkova A., Licois D., Pakandl M. 2008: The endogenous development of the rabbit coccidium Eimeria exigua Yakimoff, 1934. Vet. Parasitol. 156: 168-172 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  44. Joyner L.P., Catchpole J., Berret S. 1983: Eimeria stiedai in rabbits: the demonstration of responses to chemotherapy. Res. Vet. Sci. 34: 64-67 Go to PubMed...
  45. Kogut M.H., Long P.L. 1984: Extraintestinal sporozoites of chicken Eimeria in chickens and turkeys. Z. Parasitenkd. 70: 287-295 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  46. Kutzer E., Leibetseder J., Frey H., Boehm J., Prets H. 1981: Salinomycin, ein neues Antikokzidium in der Kaninchenmast. Wien. Tieraerztl. Mschr. 68: 57-64
  47. Kvicerova J., Pakandl M., Hypsa V. 2008: Phylogenetic relationships among Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) infecting rabbits: evolutionary significance of biological and morphological features. Parasitology 135: 443-452 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  48. Laemmler G., Hein B. 1980: Prophylaktische Wirksamkheit des Polyaether-Antibiotikums Salinomycin bei der Gallengangscoccidiose des Kaninchens. Berl. Muench. Tieraerztl. Wschr. 93: 449-454
  49. Lawn A.M., Rose M.E. 1982: Mucosal transport of Eimeria tenella in the cecum of the chicken. J. Parasitol. 68: 1117-1123 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  50. Lee E.H., Remmler O., Fernando M.A. 1977: Sexual differentiation in Eimeria tenella (Sporozoa: Coccidia). J. Parasitol. 63: 155-156 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  51. Levine N.D. 1973: Introduction, history and taxonomy. In: D.M. Hammond and P.L. Long (Eds.), The Coccidia. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 1-22 Go to PubMed...
  52. Licois D., Coudert P., Bahagia S., Rossi G.L. 1992: Characterisation of Eimeria species in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): endogenous development of Eimeria intestinalis Cheissin, 1948. J. Parasitol. 78: 1041-1046 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  53. Licois D., Coudert P., Boivin M., Drouet-Viard F., Provot F. 1990: Selection and characterization of a precocious line of Eimeria intestinalis, an intestinal rabbit coccidium. Parasitol. Res. 76: 192-198 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  54. Licois D., Coudert P., Drouet-Viard F., Boivin M. 1992: Eimeria perforans and E. coecicola: multiplication rate and effect of acquired protection on the oocyst output. J. Appl. Rabbit Res. 15: 1433-1469
  55. Licois D., Coudert P., Drouet-Viard F., Boivin M. 1994: Eimeria media: selection and characterization of a precocious line. Parasitol. Res. 80: 48-52 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  56. Licois D., Coudert P., Drouet-Viard F., Boivin M. 1995: Eimeria magna: immunogenicity and selection and characterization of a precocious line. Vet. Parasitol. 60: 27-35 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  57. Licois D., Coudert P., Mongin P. 1978a: Changes in hydromineral metabolism in diarrhoeic rabbit. 1. A study of the changes in water metabolism. Ann. Rech. Vet. 9: 1-10 Go to PubMed...
  58. Licois D., Coudert P., Mongin P. 1978b: Changes in hydromineral metabolism in diarrhoeic rabbit. 2. A study of the modification of electrolyte metabolism. Ann. Rech. Vet. 9: 453-464 Go to PubMed...
  59. Licois D., Guillot J.F. 1980: Evolution de nombre de collibacilles chez les laperaux atteints de coccidiose intestinale. Rec. Med. Vet. 156: 555-560
  60. Lillehoj H.S. 1989: Intestinal intraepithelial and splenic natural killer cell responses to eimerian infections in inbred chickens. Infect. Immun. 57: 1879-1884 Go to PubMed...
  61. Lillehoj H.S. 1998: Role of T lymphocytes and cytokines in coccidiosis. Int. J. Parasitol. 28: 1071-1081 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  62. Lillehoj H.S., Bacon L.D. 1991: Increase of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes expressing CD8 antigen following challenge infection with Eimeria acervulina. Avian Dis. 35: 294-301 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  63. Lillehoj H.S., Min W., Dalloul R.A. 2004: Recent progress on the cytokine regulation of intestinal immune response to Eimeria. Poult. Sci. 83: 611-623 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  64. Lillehoj H.S., Trout J.M. 1996: Avian gut-associated lymphoid tissues and intestinal immune responses to Eimeria parasites. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9: 349-360 Go to PubMed...
  65. Long P.L., Millard B.J. 1979: Rejection of Eimeria by foreign hosts. Parasitology 78: 239-247 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  66. Mage R.G. 1998a: Diversification of rabbit VH genes by geneconversion-like hypermutation mechanisms. Immunol. Rev. 162: 49-54 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  67. Mage R.G. 1998b: Immunology of lagomorphs. In: P.P. Pastoret, P. Griebel, H. Bazin and A. Govaerts (Eds.), Handbook of Vertebrate Immunology. Academic Press, London, pp. 223-260
  68. Norton C.C., Catchpole J., Joyner L.P. 1979: Redescriptions of Eimeria irresidua Kessel & Jankiewicz, 1931 and E. flavescens Marotel & Guilhon, 1941 from the domestic rabbit. Parasitology 79: 231-248 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  69. Okerman F., Moermans R.J. 1980: L'ifluence du coccidiostatique Salinomycine en tant qu'additif des aliments composes, sur le resultants de production des lapins de chair. Rev. Agric. 33: 1311-1321
  70. Ovington K.S., Alleva L.M., Kerr E.A. 1995: Cytokines and immunological control of Eimeria spp. Int. J. Parasitol. 25: 1331-1351 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  71. Pakandl M. 1988: Description of Eimeria vejdovskyi sp.n. and redescription of Eimeria media Kessel, 1929. Folia Parasitol. 35: 1-9 Go to PubMed...
  72. Pakandl M. 2005: Selection of a precocious line of the rabbit coccidium Eimeria flavescens Marotel and Guilhon (1941) and characterisation of its endogenous cycle. Parasitol. Res. 97: 150-155 Go to original source...
  73. Pakandl M., Cernik F., Coudert P. 2003: The rabbit coccidium Eimeria flavescens Marotel and Guilhon, 1941: an electron microscopic study of its life cycle. Parasitol. Res. 91: 304-311 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  74. Pakandl M., Coudert P. 1999: Life cycle of Eimeria vejdovskyi Pakandl, 1988: electron microscopy study. Parasitol. Res. 85: 850-854 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  75. Pakandl M., Coudert P., Licois D. 1993: Migration of sporozoites and merogony of Eimeria coecicola in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Parasitol. Res. 79: 593-598 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  76. Pakandl M., Drouet-Viard F. Coudert P. 1995: How do sporozoites of rabbit Eimeria species reach their target cells? C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Life Sciences, 318: 1213-1217 Go to PubMed...
  77. Pakandl M., Eid A hmed N., Licois D., Coudert P. 1996b: Eimeria magna Perard, 1925: life cycle studies with parental and precocious strains. Vet. Parasitol. 65: 213-222 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  78. Pakandl M., Gaca K., Drouet-Viard F., Coudert P. 1996a: Eimeria coecicola: endogenous development in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Parasitol. Res. 82: 347-351 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  79. Pakandl M., Gaca K., Licois D., Coudert P. 1996c: Eimeria media Kessel, 1929: comparative study of endogenous devel opment between precocious and parental strains. Vet. Res. 27: 465-472 Go to PubMed...
  80. Pakandl M., Hlaskova L. 2007: The reproduction of Eimeria flavescens and Eimeria intestinalis in suckling rabbits. Parasitol. Res. 101: 1435-1437 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  81. Pakandl M., Hlaskova L., Poplstein M., Chroma V., Vodicka T., Salat J., Mucksova J. 2008a: Dependence of the immune response to coccidiosis on the age of rabbit suckling. Parasitol. Res. 103: 1265-1271 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  82. Pakandl M., Hlaskova L., Poplstein M., Neveceralova M., Vodicka T., Salat J., Mucksova J. 2008b: Immune response to rabbit coccidiosis: a comparison between infections with Eimeria flavescens and Eimeria intestinalis. Folia Parasitol. 55: 1-6 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  83. Pakandl M., Jelinkova A. 2006: The rabbit coccidium Eimeria piriformis: selection of a precocious line and life-cycle study. Vet. Parasitol. 137: 351-354 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  84. Pakandl M., Licois D., Coudert P. 2001: Electron microscopy study on sporocysts and sporozoites of parental strains and precocious lines of rabbit coccidia Eimeria intestinalis, E. media and E. magna. Parasitol. Res. 87: 63-66 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  85. Pakandl M., Sewald B., Drouet-Viard F. 2006: Invasion of the intestinal tract by sporozoites of Eimeria coecicola and Eimeria intestinalis in naive and immune rabbits. Parasitol. Res. 98: 310-316 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  86. Peeters J.E., Charlier G., Antoine O., Mammerickx M. 1984a: Clinical and pathological changes after Eimeria intestinalis infection in rabbits. Zbl. Vet. Med. B 31: 9-24 Go to original source...
  87. Peeters J.E., Geeroms R. 1986: Efficacy of toltrazuril against intestinal and hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits. Vet. Parasitol. 22: 21-35 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  88. Peeters J.E., Geeroms R., Antoine O., Mammerickx M., Halen P. 1981: Efficacy of narasin against hepatic and intestinal coccidiosis in rabbits. Parasitology 83: 293-301 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  89. Peeters J.E., Geeroms R., Molderez J., Halen P. 1982: Activity of clopidol methylbenzoquate, robenidine and salinomycin against hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits. Zbl. Vet. Med. B 29: 207- 218 Go to original source...
  90. Peeters J.E., Geeroms R., Vaweryck H., Bouquet Y., Lampo P., Halen P. 1983: Immunity and effect of clopidol/methylbezoquate and robenidine before and after weaning on rabbit coccidiosis in the field. Res. Vet. Sci. 35: 211-216 Go to PubMed...
  91. Peeters J.E., Halen P. 1979a: [Efficacy of some coccidiostatics against the intestinal coccidiosis in rabbits. 1. Amproluim-ethopabat and metichlorpindol.] Vl. Diergen. Tijdschr. 48: 299-306. (In Flemish.)
  92. Peeters J.E., Halen P. 1979b: [Efficacy of some coccidiostatics against intestinal coccidiosis in rabbits. 2. Pancoxin plus and Statyl.] Vl. Diergen. Tijdschr. 48: 387-395. (In Flemish.)
  93. Peeters J.E., Halen P. 1980: Field trials with the coccidiostatics metichlorpindol and robenidine in a rabbit farm. Ann. Rech. Vet. 11: 49-55 Go to PubMed...
  94. Peeters J.E., Halen P., Meulemans G. 1979a: Efficacy of robenidine in the prevention of rabbit coccidiosis. Br. Vet. J. 135: 349-354 Go to PubMed...
  95. Peeters J.E., Janssen-Geeroms R., Halen P. 1980: Effet des anticoccidians Coyden 25, Cycopstat et Whytsin 10 sur l'excretion oocystale dans l'elavage cunicole industriel. Rev. Agric. 33: 845-855
  96. Peeters J.E., Janssen-Geeroms R., Lampo P., Halen P. 1979b: Synergistic anticoccidial activity of metichlorpindol and methylbenzoquate in rabbits. Ann. Med. Vet. 123: 573-579
  97. Peeters J.E., Pohl P., Charlier G. 1984b: Infectious agents associated with diarrhoea in commercial rabbits: a field study. Ann. Rech. Vet. 15: 335-340 Go to PubMed...
  98. Pellerdy L.P. 1974: Coccidia and Coccidiosis. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 959 pp
  99. Pellerdy L.P., Babos S. 1953: Untersuchungen ueber die endogene Entwicklung sowie pathologische Bedeutung von Eimeria media. Acta Vet. Acad. Sci. Hung. 3: 173-178
  100. Pellerdy L.P., Duerr U. 1970: Zum endogenen Entwicklugszyklus von Eimeria stiedai (Lindemann, 1865) Kisskalt, Hartman 1907. Acta Vet. Acad. Sci. Hung. 20: 227-244 Go to PubMed...
  101. Renaux S., Drouet-Viard F., Chanteloup N.K., Le Vern Y., Kerboef D., Pakandl M., Coudert P. 2001: Tissues and cells involved in the invasion of the rabbit intestinal tract by sporozoites of Eimeria coecicola. Parasitol. Res. 87: 98-106 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  102. Renaux S., Quere P., Buzoni-Gatel D., Sewald B., Le Vern Y., Coudert P., Drouet-Viard F. 2003: Dynamics and responsiveness of T-lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs of rabbits developing immunity to Eimeria intestinalis. Vet. Parasitol. 110: 181-195 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  103. Riley D., Fernando M.A. 1988: Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa): a comparison of sporozoite transport in naive and immune chickens. J. Parasitol. 74: 103-110 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  104. Roberts W.L., Hammond D.M., Anderson L.C., Speer C.A. 1970: Ultrastructural study of schizogony in Eimeria callospermophili. J. Protozool. 17: 584-592 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  105. Rose M.E. 1973: Immunity. In: D.M. Hammond and P.L. Long (Eds.), The Coccidia. University Press, Baltimore, pp. 295-241 Go to PubMed...
  106. Rose M.E. 1996: Immunity to coccidia. In: T.F. Davidson, T.R. Morris and L.N. Payne (Eds.), Poultry Immunology. Poultry Sci. Symp. Series, Vol. 24, pp. 265-299
  107. Rose M.E., Lawn A.M., Millard B.J. 1984: The effects of immunity on the early events in the life-cycle of Eimeria tenella in the cecal mucosa of the chickens. Parasitology 88: 199-210 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  108. Rose M.E., Hesketh P., Wakelin D. 1992: Immune control of murine coccidiosis - CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes-T contribute differentially in resistance to primary and secondary infections. Parasitology 105: 349-354 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  109. Rutherford R.L. 1943: The life cycle of four intestinal coccidia of the domestic rabbit. J. Parasitol. 29: 10-32 Go to original source...
  110. Ryley J.F., Robinson T.E. 1976: Life cycle studies with Eimeria magna Perard, 1925. Z. Parasitenkd. 50: 257-275 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  111. Sambeth W., Raether W. 1980: Prophylaktischer Effekt von Salinomycin gegen die Kokzidiose des Kaninchens. Zbl. Vet. Med. B 27: 446-458 Go to original source...
  112. Sampson J.R., Hammond D.M. 1970: The fine structure of the early stages of Eimeria alabamensis in cell cultures. J. Protozool. 17: 49A
  113. Schito M.L., Chobotar B., Barta J.R. 1998: Cellular dynamics and cytokine responses in BALB/c mice infected with Eimeria papillata during primary and secondary infections. J. Parasitol. 84: 328-337 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  114. Sehgal D., Schiaffella E., Anderson A.O., Mage R.G. 1998: Analyses of single B cells by polymerase chain reaction reveal rearranged VH with germline sequences in spleens of immunized adult rabbits: implications for B cell repertoire maintenance and renewal. J. Immunol. 161: 5347-5356 Go to PubMed...
  115. Senaud J., Cerna Z. 1969: Etude ultrastructurale des merozoites et de la schizogonie des coccidies (Eimeriina): Eimeria magna (Perard, 1925) de l'intestin des lapins et Eimeria tenella (Railliet et Lucet, 1891) des caecums des poulets. J. Protozool. 16: 155-165. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  116. Shi M.Q., Huther S., Burkhardt E., Zahner H. 2001: Lymphocyte subpopulations in the caecum mucosa of rats after infections with Eimeria separata: early responses in naive and immune animals to primary and challenge infections. Int. J. Parasitol. 31: 49-55 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  117. Shirley M.W., Harvey D.A. 1996: Eimeria tenella: infection with a single sporocyst gives a clonal population. Parasitology 112: 523-528 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  118. Shirley M.W., Long P.L. 1990: Control of coccidiosis: immunisation with live vaccines. In: P.L. Long (Ed.), Coccidiosis of Man and Domestic Animals. CRC Press, Boston, pp. 321-341
  119. Smetana H. 1933a: Coccidiosis of the liver of rabbits: experimental study of the mode of infection of the liver by sporozoites. Arch. Pathol. 15: 330-339
  120. Smetana H. 1933b: Coccidiosis of the liver of rabbits: experimental study of the histogenesis of coccidiosis of the liver. Arch. Pathol. 15: 516-536
  121. Smith T.G., Walliker D., Ranford -Cartwright L.C. 2002: Sexual differentiation and sex determination in the Apicomplexa. Trends Parasitol. 18: 315-323 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  122. Speer C.A., Hammond D.M. 1970: Development of Eimeria larimensis from the Uinta ground squirrel in cell cultures. Z. Parasitenkd. 35: 105-118 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  123. Speer C.A., Hammond D.M., Anderson L.C. 1970: Development of Eimeria callospermophili and Eimeria bilamellata from the Uinta ground squirrel, Spermophilus armatus in cultured cells. J. Protozool. 17: 274-284 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  124. Speer C.A., Hammond D.M., Elsner Y.Y. 1973: Further asexual development of Eimeria magna merozoites in cell culture. J. Parasitol. 59: 613-623 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  125. Streun A., Coudert P., Rossi G.L. 1979: Characterization of Eimeria species. II. Sequential morphologic study of the endogenous cycle of Eimeria perforans (Leuckart, 1879; Sluiter and Swellengrebel, 1912) in experimentally infected rabbits. Z. Parasitenkd. 60: 37-53 Go to original source...
  126. Vanparijs O., Desplenter L., Marsboom R. 1989a: Efficacy of diclazuril in the control of intestinal coccidiosis in rabbits. Vet. Parasitol. 34: 185-190 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  127. Vanparijs O., Hermans L., van der Flaes L., Marsboom R. 1989b: Efficacy of diclazuril in the prevention and cure of intestinal and hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits. Vet. Parasitol. 32: 109-117 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  128. Varga I. 1982: Large-scale management and parasite populations: Coccidia in rabbit. Vet. Parasitol. 11: 69-84 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  129. Vitovec J., Pakandl M. 1989: The pathogenicity of rabbit coccidium Eimeria coecicola Cheissin, 1947. Folia Parasitol. 36: 289-293 Go to PubMed...
  130. Wakelin D., Rose M.E. 1990: Immunity to coccidiosis. In: P.L. Long (Ed.), Coccidiosis of Man and Domestic Animals. CRC Press, Boston, pp. 281-306
  131. Weinstein P.D., Anderson A.O., Mage R.G. 1994: Rabbit IgH sequences in appendix germinal centers: VH diversification by gene conversion-like and hypermutation mechanism. Immunity 1: 647-659 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  132. Yun C.H., Lillehoj H.S., Lillehoj E.P. 2000: Intestinal immune response to coccidiosis. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 24: 303-324 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...