Folia Parasitologica, vol. 56 (2009), issue 3

Folia Parasitologica 56[3] 185-193 (2009) | 10.14411/fp.2009.023

Experimental studies on the development of Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in copepod and fish paratenic hosts

František Moravec
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic

The larval development of the nematode Contracaecum rudolphii (Rudolphi, 1819), a common parasite of the proventriculus of cormorants, was experimentally studied. Within the eggs cultivated in freshwater under laboratory temperatures of 20-22 °C, the developing larva undergoes two moults on days 4-5, attaining the third larval stage. Most of the ensheathed third-stage larvae, 291-457 µm long, hatch spontaneously from egg shells on days 5-6. Experiments have indicated that hatched ensheated third-stage larvae and those still inside egg capsules are already infective to copepods and fishes, which both can be considered paratenic (metaparatenic) hosts. Five copepod species, Acanthocyclops vernalis, Cyclops strenuus, Ectocyclops phaleratus, Eucyclops serrulatus and Megacyclops viridis, the isopod Asellus aquaticus and small carps Cyprinus carpio were infected by feeding them these larvae. In addition, 9 fish species, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Anguilla anguilla, Barbatula barbatula, Cyprinus carpio, Gobio gobio, Perca fluviatilis, Phoxinus phoxinus, Poecilia reticulata and Tinca tinca, were successfully infected by feeding them copepods previously infected with C. rudolphii third-stage larvae. In fishes, larvae from copepods penetrate through the intestinal wall to the body cavity, where, in a few weeks, they become encapsulated; the larvae substantially grow in fish, attaining the body length up to 4.87 mm. In carp fry, the nematode third-stage larvae survived for about 15 months (up to 18 months in fish infected directly, i.e., without copepods). One small cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) was successfully infected by feeding it with copepods harbouring C. rudolphii third-stage larvae.

Keywords: parasitic nematode, Contracaecum, cormorant, Phalacrocorax, development, paratenic host, copepod, fish, Czech Republic

Received: April 22, 2009; Accepted: June 22, 2009; Published: September 1, 2009


References

  1. Adroher F.J., Malagyn D., Valero A., Benitez R. 2004: In vitro development of the fish parasite Hysterothylacium aduncum from the third larval stage recovered from a host to the third larval stage hatched from the egg. Dis. Aquat. Org. 58: 41-45 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Amato J.F.R., Monteiro C.M., Amato S.B. 2006: Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich (Nematoda, Anisakidae) from the Neotropical cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin) (Aves, Phalacrocoracidae) in southern Brazil. Rev. Brasil. Zool. 23: 1284-1289 Go to original source...
  3. Barson M., Marshall B.E. 2004: First record of Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in fish-eating birds from Zimbabwe. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 75: 1-5 Go to original source...
  4. Bartlett C.M. 1996: Morphogenesis of Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea), a parasite of fish-eating birds, in its copepod precursor and fish intermediate hosts. Parasite 4: 367-376 Go to original source...
  5. Barus V., Tenora F., Kracmar S., Prokes M. 2001: Cadmium and lead concentrations in Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda) and its host, the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (Aves). Folia Parasitol. 48: 77-78 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  6. D'A melio S., Barros N.B., Ingrosso S., Fauquier D.A., Russo R., Paggi L. 2007: Genetic characterization of members of the genus Contracaecum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from fish-eating birds from west-central Florida, USA, with evidence of new species. Parasitology 134: 1041-1051 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  7. Dubinin V.B. 1949: [Experimental study of the life cycles of some parasitic worms of animals in the Volga River delta.] Parazitol. Sb., Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 11: 126-160. (In Russian.)
  8. Dziekonska -Rynko J., Rokicki J. 2007: Experimental infestation of copepods and amphipods with Contracaecum rudolphii larvae. In: C.M. Nigmatullin (Ed.), Proceedings of the IV AllRussian Workshop on Theoretical and Marine Parasitology, AtlantNIRO Publishing, Kaliningrad, pp. 58-60
  9. Dziekonska -Rynko J., Rokicki J. 2008: Experimental infection of Carassius auratus (L., 1758) with the second stage larvae of the nematode Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964. Wiad. Parazytol. 54: 339-343 Go to PubMed...
  10. Farjallah S., Merella P., Ingrosso S., Rotta A., Ben S limane B., Garippa G., Said K., Busi M. 2008: Molecular evidence for the occurrence of Contracaecum rudolphii A (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Linnaeus) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). Parasitol. Int. 57: 437-440 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  11. Hartwich G. 1964: Revision der vogelparasitischen Nematoden Mitteleuropas II. Die Gattung Contracaecum Railliet & Henry, 1912 (Ascaridoidea). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berl. 40: 15-53
  12. Huizinga H.W. 1966: Studies on the life cycle and development of Contracaecum spiculigerum (Rudolphi, 1809) (Ascaroidea: Heterocheilidae) from marine piscivorous birds. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 82: 181-195
  13. Kanarek G., Rokicki J. 2005: The status of studies on the helminth fauna of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in northern Poland. Wiad. Parazytol. 51: 165 Go to PubMed...
  14. Koie M. 1993: Aspects of the life cycle and morphology of Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea, Anisakidae). Can. J. Zool. 71: 1289-1296 Go to original source...
  15. Koie M., Berland B., Burt M.D.B. 1995: Development to third stage larvae occurs in the eggs of Anisakis simplex and Pseudoterranova decipiens (Nematoda, Ascaroidea, Anisakidae). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52: 134-139 Go to original source...
  16. Koie M., Fagerholm H.-P. 1993: Third-stage larvae emerge from eggs of Contracaecum osculatum (Nematoda, Anisakidae). J. Parasitol. 79: 777-780 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  17. Koie M., Fagerholm H.-P. 1995: The life cycle of Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802) sensu stricto (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea, Anisakidae) in view of experimental infections. Parasitol. Res. 81: 481-489 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  18. Mattiucci S., Turchetto M., Bragantini F., Nascetti G. 2002: On the occurrence of the sibling species of Contracaecum rudolphii complex (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) from Venice and Caorle lagoons: genetic markers and ecological studies. Parassitologia 44: 105
  19. Moravec F., Nasincova V., Scholz T. 1988: New records of helminth parasites from cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo (L.)) in Czechoslovakia. Folia Parasitol. 35: 381-383
  20. Mozgovoy A.A., Shakhmatova V.I., Semenova M.K. 1965: [Study of the life cycle of Contracaecum spiculigerum (Ascaridata: Anisakidae), a nematode of fish-eating birds.] Materials of the Scientific Conference of the All-Union Society of Parasitologists, Pt. 4, pp. 169-174. (In Russian.)
  21. Mozgovoy A.A., Shakhmatova V.I., Semenova M.K. 1968: [Life cycle of Contracaecum spiculigerum (Ascaridata: Anisakidae), a parasite of domestic and game birds.] Tr. GELAN 19: 129- 136. (In Russian.)
  22. Nottenkaemper D., Korbel R., Koesters J. 1999: Zum Befall von Kormoranen (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis L., 1758) mit Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) im Bezirk Oberbayern (D) und Kanton St. Gallen (CH). Tieraerztl. Prax. 27: 274-279
  23. Odening K. 1976: Conception and terminology of hosts in parasitology. Adv. Parasitol. 14: 1-93 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  24. Szostakowska B., Fagerholm H.-P. 2007: Molecular identification of two strains of third-stage larvae of Contracaecum rudolphii sensu lato (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from fishes in Poland. J. Parasitol. 93: 961-964 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  25. Thomas L.J. 1937a: On the life cycle of Contracaecum spiculigerum (Rud.). J. Parasitol. 23: 429-431 Go to original source...
  26. Thomas L.J. 1937b: Further studies on the life cycle of Contracaecum spiculigerum. J. Parasitol. 23: 572 Go to original source...
  27. Torres P., Ortega J., Schlatter R. 2005: Nematode parasites of the digestive tract in Neotropical cormorant chicks (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) from the River Cruces Ramsar site in southern Chile. Parasitol. Res. 97: 103-107 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  28. Torres P., Valdivieso J., Schlatter R., Montefusco A., Revenga J., Marin F., Lamilla J., Ramallo G. 2000: Infection by Contracaecum rudolphii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the Neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and fishes from the estuary of the Valdivia river, Chile. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 35: 101-108 Go to original source...
  29. Zuchowska E. 2000: Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) u kormoranow w Polsce. Wiad. Parazytol. 46: 411-412 Go to PubMed...