Folia Parasitologica, vol. 56 (2009), issue 3

Folia Parasitologica 56[3] 199-230 (2009) | 10.14411/fp.2009.025

Unified terminology for cestode microtriches: a proposal from the International Workshops on Cestode Systematics in 2002-2008

Lenta Chervy
University of Connecticut, Unit 3043, 75 N. Eagleville Rd., Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3043, USA

Terminology for microtriches, the surface features both unique to and ubiquitous among cestodes, is standardised based on discussions that occurred at the International Workshops on Cestode Systematics in Storrs, Connecticut, USA in 2002, in České Budějovice, Czech Republic in 2005 and in Smolenice, Slovakia in 2008. The following terms were endorsed for the components of individual microtriches: The distal, electron-dense portion is the cap, the proximal more electron-lucent region is the base. These two elements are separated from one another by the baseplate. The base is composed of, among other elements, microfilaments. The cap is composed of cap tubules. The electron-lucent central portion of the base is referred to as the core. The core may be surrounded by an electron-dense tunic. The entire microthrix is bounded by a plasma membrane, the external layer of which is referred to as the glycocalyx. Two distinct sizes of microtriches are recognised: those <= 200 nm in basal width, termed filitriches, and those >200 nm in basal width, termed spinitriches. Filitriches are considered to occur in three lengths: papilliform (<= 2 times as long as wide), acicular (2-6 times as long as wide), and capilliform (>6 times as long as wide). In instances in which filitriches appear to be doubled at their base, the modifier duplicated is used. Spinitriches are much more variable in form. At present a total of 25 spinithrix shapes are recognised. These consist of 13 in which the width greatly exceeds the thickness (i.e., bifid, bifurcate, cordate, gladiate, hamulate, lanceolate, lineate, lingulate, palmate, pectinate, spathulate, trifid, and trifurcate), and 12 in which width and thickness are approximately equal (i.e., chelate, clavate, columnar, coniform, costate, cyrillionate, hastate, rostrate, scolopate, stellate, trullate, and uncinate). Spiniform microtriches can bear marginal (serrate) and/or dorsoventral (gongylate) elaborations; they can also bear apical features (aristate). The latter two modifiers should be used only if the features are present. The terminology to describe the overall form of a spinithrix should be used in the following order: tip, margins, shape. Each type of microthrix variation is defined and illustrated with one or more scanning electron micrographs. An indication of the taxa in which each of the microthrix forms is found is also provided.

Keywords: microthrix, microtriches, Cestoda, ultrastructure, tegument

Received: April 22, 2009; Accepted: June 16, 2009; Published: September 1, 2009


References

  1. Agusti C., Aznar F.J., Raga J.A. 2005: Microtriches of tetraphyllidean metacestodes from Western Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). J. Morphol. 265: 176-189 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Amin O., Heckmann A., Radwan N.A.E., Mantuano Anchundia J.S., Zambrano Alcivar M.A. 2009: Redescription of Rhadinorhynchus ornatus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from skipmack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, collected in the Pacific Ocean off South America, with special reference to new morphological features. J. Parasitol. 95: 656-664 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Andersen K.I. 1975: The functional morphology of the scolex of Diphyllobothrium Cobbold (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea), a scanning electron and light microscopical study on scoleces of adult D. dendriticum (Nitzsch), D. latum (L.) and D. ditremum (Creplin). Int. J. Parasitol. 5: 487-493 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Andersen K.I. 1979: Studies on the scolex morphology of Eubothrium spp. with emphasis on characters usable in species discrimination and with brief references on the scolices of Bothriocephalus sp. and Triaenophorus spp. (Cestoda; Pseudophyllidea). Z. Parasitenkd. 60: 147-156 Go to original source...
  5. Andersen K.I. 1987: S.E.M. observations on plerocercus larvae of Floriceps saccatus Cuvier, 1817 and Molicola horridus (Goodsir, 1814) (Cestoda; Trypanorhyncha) from sunfish (Mola mola). Fauna Norv., Ser. A, 8: 25-28
  6. Andersen K.I., Gibson D.I. 1989: A key to three species of larval Diphyllobothrium Cobbold, 1858 (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) occurring in European and North American freshwater fishes. Syst. Parasitol. 13: 3-9 Go to original source...
  7. Andersen K.I., Lysfjord S. 1982: The functional morphology of the scolex of two Tetrabothrius Rudolphi 1819 species (Cestoda; Tetrabothriidae) from penguins. Z. Parasitenkd. 67: 299-307 Go to original source...
  8. Anonymous 1962: Report of the Systematics Association Committee for Descriptive Biological Terminology, II and IIa. Terminology of simple symmetrical plane shapes (Charts 1, 1a). Taxon 11: 145-155, 245-247
  9. Arrendondo N.J., Gil de P ertierra A.A. 2008: The taxonomic status of Spatulifer cf. maringaensis Pavanelli & Rego, 1989 (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (Pisces: Siluriformes), and the use of microthrix pattern in the discrimination of Spatulifer spp. Syst. Parasitol. 70: 223-236 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Ashour A.A., Koura E.A., Wanas M.Q. 1994: Ultrastructural study of the body surface and the flame cell of Oochoristica sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae). J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 24: 295-303 Go to PubMed...
  11. Ba C.T., Sene T., Marchand B. 1995: Scanning electron microscope examination of scale-like spines on the rostellum of five Davaineinae (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea). Parasite 2: 63-67 Go to PubMed...
  12. Baron P.J. 1968: On the histology and ultrastructure of Cysticercus longicollis, the cysticercus of Taenia crassiceps Zeder, 1800, (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea). Parasitology 58: 497-513 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  13. Baron P.J. 1971: On the histology, histochemistry and ultrastructure of the cysticercoid of Raillietina cesticillus (Molin, 1858) Fuhrmann, 1920 (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea). Parasitology 62: 233-245 Go to original source...
  14. Beguin F. 1966: Etude au microscope electronique de la cuticle et de ses structures associees chez quelques cestodes. Essai d'histologie comparee. Z. Zellforsch. 72: 30-46 Go to original source...
  15. Berger J., Mettrick D.F. 1971: Microtrichial polymorphism among hymenolepid tapeworms as seen by scanning electron microscopy. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 90: 393-403 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  16. Beveridge I., Campbell R.A. 2001: Grillotia australis n. sp. and G. pristiophori n. sp. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from Australian elasmobranch and teleost fishes. Syst. Parasitol. 49: 113-126 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  17. Beveridge I., Jones M.K. 2000: Prochristianella spinulifera n. sp. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from Australian dasyatid and rhinobatid rays. Syst. Parasitol. 47: 1-8 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  18. Beveridge I., Smith K. 1985: An ultrastructural study of the cirrus and vagina of Phyllobothrium vagans (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea). Z. Parasitenkd. 71: 609-616 Go to original source...
  19. Biserova N.M. 1991: [Ultrastructure of scolex and the tegument of the strobila in Echinobothrium typus (Cestoda: Diphyllidea).] Tr. Zool. Inst. Acad. Sci. USSR 241: 153-172. (In Russian.)
  20. Blitz N.M., Smyth J.D. 1973: Tegumental ultrastructure of Raillietina cesticillus during the larval-adult transformation, with emphasis on the rostellum. Int. J. Parasitol. 3: 561-570 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  21. Borror D.J. 1960: Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms: Compiled from the Greek, Latin, and other Languages, with Special Reference to Biological Terms and Scientific Names. N-P Publications, Palo Alto, California, 134 pp
  22. Bortoletti G., Ferretti G. 1985: Morphological studies on the early development of Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in susceptible mice. Int. J. Parasitol. 15: 365-375 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  23. Boyce N.P. 1976: A new organ in cestode surface ultrastructure. Can. J. Zool. 54: 610-613 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  24. Braten T. 1968a: An electron microscope study of the tegument and associated structures of the procercoid of Diphyllobothrium latum (L.). Z. Parasitenkd. 30: 95-103 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  25. Braten T. 1968b: The fine structure of the tegument of Diphyllobothrium latum (L.): A comparison of the plerocercoid and adult stages. Z. Parasitenkd. 30: 104-112 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  26. Brockerhoff A., Jones M.K. 1995: Ultrastructure of the scolex and tentacles of the metacestode of Polypocephalus species (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidae) from the blue-swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus. Int. J. Parasitol. 25: 1077-1088 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  27. Brown R.W. 1956: Composition of Scientific Words: A Manual of Methods and a Lexicon of Materials for the Practice of Logotechnics. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 882 pp
  28. Brunanska A.M., Fagerholm H.-P., Gustafsson M.K.S. 2000: Ultrastructure studies of preadult Proteocephalus longicollis (Cestoda, Proteocephalidea): transmission electron microscopy of scolex sensory receptors. Parasitol. Res. 86: 89-95 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  29. Burt M.D.B., Sandeman I.M. 1974: The biology of Bothrimonus (=Diplocotyle) (Pseudophyllidea: Cestoda): detailed morphology and fine structure. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 31: 147-153
  30. Caira J.N. 1990a: The tapeworm Spiniloculus mavensis (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from the brownbanded bambooshark in Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 37: 705-710 Go to original source...
  31. Caira J.N. 1990b: Scolex microtriches as systematic characters in the Onchobothriidae. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 8: 212
  32. Caira J.N. 1992: Verification of multiple species of Pedibothrium in the Atlantic nurse shark with comments on the Australasian members of the genus. J. Parasitol. 78: 289-308 Go to original source...
  33. Caira J.N., Burge A.N. 2001: Three new species of Acanthobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from the ocellated electric ray, Diplobatis ommata, in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Comp. Parasitol. 68: 52-65
  34. Caira J.N., Durkin S.M. 2006: A new genus and species of tetraphyllidean cestode from the spadenose shark, Scoliodon laticaudus, in Malaysian Borneo. Comp. Parasitol. 73: 42-48 Go to original source...
  35. Caira J.N., Healy C.J., Swanson J. 1996: A new species of Phoreiobothrium (Cestoidea: Tetraphyllidea) from the great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran and its implications for the evolution of the onchobothriid scolex. J. Parasitol. 82: 458- 462 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  36. Caira J.N., Jensen K., Healy C.J. 1999: On the phylogenetic relationships among tetraphyllidean, lecanicephalidean and diphyllidean tapeworm genera. Syst. Parasitol 42: 77-151 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  37. Caira J.N., Jensen K., Healy C.J. 2001: Interrelationships among tetraphyllidean and lecanicephalidean cestodes. In: D.T.J. Littlewood and R.A. Bray (Eds.), Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes. Taylor & Francis, London and New York, pp. 135- 158
  38. Caira J.N., Jensen K., Rajan C. 2007a: Seven new Yorkeria species (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from Borneo and Australia and their implications for identification of Chiloscyllium (Elasmobranchii: Orectolobiformes) species. J. Parasitol. 93: 357-376 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  39. Caira J.N., Keeling C.P. 1996: On the status of the genus Pinguicollum (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) with a redescription of P. pinguicollum. J. Parasitol. 82: 463-469 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  40. Caira J.N., Mega J., Ruhnke T.R. 2005: An unusual blood sequestering tapeworm (Sanguilevator yearsleyi n. gen., n. sp.) from Borneo with description of Cathetocephalus resendezi n. sp. from Mexico and molecular support for the recognition of the order Cathetocephalidea (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda). Int. J. Parasitol. 35: 1135-1152 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  41. Caira J.N., Orringer D.V. 1995: Additional information on the morphology of Potamotrygonocestus magdalenensis (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon magdalenae in Colombia. J. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 62: 22-26
  42. Caira J.N., Pritchard M.H. 1986: A review of the genus Pedibothrium Linton, 1909 (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) with description of two new species and comments on the related genera Pachybothrium Baer and Euzet, 1962 and Balanobothrium Hornell, 1912. J. Parasitol. 72: 62-70 Go to original source...
  43. Caira J.N., Reyda F.B., Mega J.D. 2007b: A revision of Megalonchos (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) with description of two new species and transfer of two species to Biloculuncus. Syst. Parasitol. 67: 211-223 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  44. Caira J.N., Ruhnke T.R. 1990: A new species of Calliobothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from the whiskery shark, Furgaleus macki, in Australia. J. Parasitol. 76: 319-324 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  45. Caira J.N., Ruhnke T.R. 1991: A comparison of scolex morphology between the plerocercoid and the adult of Calliobothrium verticillatum (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae). Can. J. Zool. 69: 1484-1488 Go to original source...
  46. Caira J.N., Tracy R. 2002: Two new species of Yorkeria (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from Chiloscyllium punctatum (Elasmobranchii: Hemiscylliidae) in Thailand. J. Parasitol. 88: 1172-1180 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  47. Caira J.N., Tracy R., Euzet L. 2004: Five new species of Pedibothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from the tawny nurse shark, Nebrius ferrugineus, in the Pacific Ocean. J. Parasitol. 90: 286-300 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  48. Caira J.N., Zahner S.D. 2001: Two new species of Acanthobothrium Beneden, 1849 (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from horn sharks in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Syst. Parasitol. 50: 219-229 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  49. Campbell R.A., Marques F., Ivanov V.A. 1999: Paroncomegas araya (Woodland, 1934) n. gen. et comb. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha: Eutetrarhynchidae) from the freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro in South America. J. Parasitol. 85: 313-320 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  50. Caneda-Guzman I.C., de Chambrier A., Scholz T. 2001: Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae) from the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis from Mexico, the first proteocephalidean tapeworm from a mammal. J. Parasitol. 87: 639-646 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  51. Carvajal J., Barros C., Whittaker F.H. 1987: Scanning electron microscopy of the scolex of the plerocercus Callitetrarhynchus gracilis (Rudolphi, 1819) (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha). J. Parasitol. 73: 1265-1267 Go to original source...
  52. Casado N., Perez-Serrano J., Denegri G., Rodriguez-Caabeiro F. 1994: Development of truncated microtriches in Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. Parasitol. Res. 80: 355-357 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  53. Casado N., Urrea M.A., Moreno M.J., Rodriguez-Caabeiro F. 1999: Tegumental topography of the plerocercoid of Gymno rhynchus gigas (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha). Parasitol. Res. 85: 124-130 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  54. Charles G.H., Orr T.S.C. 1968: Comparative fine structure of outer tegument of Ligula intestinalis and Schistocephalus solidus. Exp. Parasitol. 22: 137-149 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  55. Chervy L. 2002: The terminology of larval cestodes or metacestodes. Syst. Parasitol. 52: 1-33 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  56. Chubb J.C., Seppala T., Luscher A., Milinski M., Valtonen E.T. 2006: Schistocephalus cotti n. sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) plerocercoids from bullheads Cottus gobio L. in an Artic river in Finland, with a key to the plerocercoids of the Palaearctic species of the genus. Syst. Parasitol. 65: 161-170 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  57. Cielecka D., Grytner-Ziecina B., Chomicz L. 1994: Studies of the surface ultrastructure of Sobolevicanthus gracilis (Zeder, 1803) (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae). Acta Parasitol. 39: 131-137
  58. Clopton R.E. 2004: Standard nomenclature and metrics of plane shapes for use in gregarine taxonomy. Comp. Parasitol. 71: 130-140 Go to original source...
  59. Coggins J.R. 1980: Tegument and apical end organ fine structure in the metacestode and adult Proteocephalus ambloplitis. Int. J. Parasitol. 10: 409-418 Go to original source...
  60. Coil W.H. 1991: Platyhelminthes: Cestoidea. In: F.W. Harrison and B.J. Bogitsch (Eds.), Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Volume 3: Platyhelminthes and Nemertinea. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 219-225
  61. Conn D.B. 1988: Fine structure of the tegument of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea). Int. J. Parasitol. 18: 133-135 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  62. Conn D.B. 2004: Comparative aspects of postembryonic development of cestodes (Platyhelminthes) and other animal taxa. In: S. Mas-Coma (Ed.), Multidisciplinarity for Parasites, Vectors and Parasitic Diseases. Proceedings of the IX European Multicolloquium of Parasitology. Vol. 1. Articles of Keynote Speakers. Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, Italy, pp. 319-325
  63. Conn D.B., Swiderski Z. 2008: A standardised terminology of the embryonic envelopes and associated developmental stages of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda). Folia Parasitol. 55: 42-52 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  64. Coutelen F. 1927: Contribution a l'etude morphologique des scolex echinococciques. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 5: 243-244
  65. Crusz H. 1947: The early development of the rostellum of Cysticercus fasciolaris Rud., and the chemical nature of its hooks. J. Parasitol. 33: 87-98 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  66. Czaplinski B., Aeschlimann A., Cielecka D. 1984: Scanning electron microscopy of the cirrus surface of some Hymenolepididae (Cestoda). Acta Parasitol. Pol. 29: 59-62
  67. Czaplinski B., Cielecka D., Aeschlimann A. 1988: Some ultrastructural comparative data on Diorchis inflata (Rudolphi, 1819) and D. ransomi Johri, 1939 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) in scanning electron microscopy. Acta Parasitol. Pol. 33: 123- 125
  68. Davydov V.G., Korneva J.V., Kuperman B.I. 1995: The development of the tegument in ontogenesis of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea). Folia Parasitol. 42: 269-279
  69. Davydov V.G., Kuperman B.I. 1993: The ultrastructure of the tegument and the peculiarities of the biology of Amphilina foliacea adult (Plathelminthes, Amphilinidea). Folia Parasitol. 40: 13-22
  70. Davydov V.G., Poddubnaya L.G., Kuperman B.I. 1997: An ultrastructure of some systems of Diplocotyle olrikii (Cestoda: Cyathocephalata) in relation to peculiarities of its life cycle. Parazitologiya 31: 132-141. (In Russian with English summary.)
  71. Davydov V.G., Pospekhova N.A., Yurlova N.I. 1990: Ultrastructural organisation of scolex and strobila in Gastrotaenia dogieli (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae). Parazitologiya 24: 207-215. (In Russian with English summary.)
  72. de Chambrier A. 2001: A new tapeworm from the Amazon, Amazotaenia yvettae gen. n., sp. n., (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea) from the siluriform fishes Brachyplatystoma filamentosum and B. vaillanti (Pimelodidae). Rev. Suisse Zool. 108: 303-316
  73. de Chambrier A. 2003: Systematic status of Manaosia bracodemoca Woodland, 1935 and Paramonticellia itaipuensis Pavanelli et Rego, 1991 (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea), parasites of Sorubim lima (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from South America. Folia Parasitol. 50: 121-127
  74. de Chambrier A. 2004: Redescription of Ophiotaenia hylae Johnston, 1912 (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea), parasite of Litoria aurea (Amphibia: Hylidae) from Australia. Rev. Suisse Zool. 111: 371-380
  75. de Chambrier A. 2006: Redescription of Kapsulotaenia sandgroundi (Carter, 1943) (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea: Acanthotaeniinae), a parasite of Varanus komodoensis (Varanoidea: Varanidae) from Indonesia. Syst. Parasitol. 63: 83-93
  76. de Chambrier A., Al -Kallak S.N.H., Mariaux J. 2003: A new tapeworm, Postgangesia inarmata n. sp. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea: Gangesiinae), parasitic in Silurus glanis (Siluriformes) from Iraq and some comments on the Gangesiinae Mola, 1929. Syst. Parasitol. 55: 199-209 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  77. de Chambrier A., Coquille S.C., Brooks D.R. 2006b: Ophiotaenia bonneti sp. n. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of Rana vaillanti (Anura: Ranidae) in Costa Rica. Folia Parasitol. 53: 125-133 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  78. de Chambrier A., Coquille S.C., Tkach V., Mariaux J. 2009a: Redescription of Testudotaenia testudo (Magath, 1924) (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of Apalone spinifera (Le Sueur) (Reptilia: Trionychidae) and Amia calva L. (Pisces: Amiidae) in North America and erection of the Testudotaeniinae n. subfam. Syst. Parasitol. 73: 49-64 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  79. de Chambrier A., Mariaux J., Sene A., Mahmoud Z.N., Scholz T. 2008: Sandonella sandoni (Lynsdale, 1960), an enigmatic and morphologically unique cestode parasitic in the osteoglossiform fish Heterotis niloticus in Africa. J. Parasitol. 94: 202-211 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  80. de Chambrier A., Rego A.A., Gil de P ertierra A.A. 2005: Redescription of two cestodes (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea) parasitic in Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Siluriformes) from the Amazon and erection of Scholzia gen. n. Rev. Suisse Zool. 112: 735-752
  81. de Chambrier A., Rego A.A., Vaucher C. 1999: Euzetiella tetraphylliformis n. gen., n. sp., (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea), parasite du poisson d'eau douce neotropical Paulicea luetkeni (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae). Parasite 6: 43-47 Go to PubMed...
  82. de Chambrier A., Scholz T. 2008: Tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) of firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Amazon River. Folia Parasitol. 55: 17-28 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  83. de Chambrier A., Scholz T., Beletew M., Mahmoud Z.N. 2007: Redescription of Proteocephalus sulcatus (Klaptocz, 1906) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), a poorly known parasite of Clarotes laticeps (Pisces: Siluriformes) in the Sudan. Rev. Suisse Zool. 114: 693-702
  84. de Chambrier A., Scholz T., Beletew M., Mariaux J. 2009b: A new genus and species of proteocephalidean (Cestoda) from Clarias catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in Africa. J. Parasitol. 95: 160-168 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  85. de Chambrier A., Scholz T., Ibraheem M.H. 2004: Redescription of Electrotaenia malopteruri (Fritsch, 1886) (Cestoda: Proteo cephalidae), a parasite of Malapterurus electricus (Siluriformes: Malapteruridae) from Egypt. Syst. Parasitol. 57: 97-109 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  86. de Chambrier A., Takemoto R.M., Pavanelli G.C. 2006a: Nomimoscolex pertierrae n. sp. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil and redescription of N. sudobim Woodland, 1935, a parasite of P. fasciatum. Syst. Parasitol. 64: 191-202 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  87. Diaz-Castaneda V., Carabez-Trejo A., Lamothe-Argumedo R. 1995: Ultrastructure of the pseudophyllidean cestode Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, parasite of freshwater fish of commercial importance. An. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Auton. Mex., Ser. Zool., 66: 1-16
  88. Euzet L., Gabrion C. 1976: Mise en evidence d'un gradient de differenciation du tegument chez la larve de deux Cestodes Cyclophyllides. C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. D, Sci. Nat. 283: 367-370
  89. Faliex E., Tyler G., Euzet L. 2000: A new species of Ditrachybothridium (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) from Galeus sp. (Selachii, Scyliorhinidae) from the South Pacific Ocean, with a revision of the diagnosis of the order, family, and genus and notes on descriptive terminology of microtriches. J. Parasitol. 86: 1078- 1084 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  90. Featherston D.W. 1972: Taenia hydatigena - IV. Ultrastructure study of the tegument. Z. Parasitenkd. 38: 214-232 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  91. Featherston D.W. 1975: Taenia hydatigena - V. Surface structure of the adult worm and evaginated scolex. Int. J. Parasitol. 5: 615-619 Go to original source...
  92. Fourie H.J., Van Amelsfoort A.F., Michael L.M., Putterill J.F. 1997: A scanning electron-microscope examination of the scolex of Houttuynia struthionis. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 64: 47-50 Go to PubMed...
  93. Fyler C.A. 2007: Comparison of microthrix ultrastructure and morphology on the plerocercoid and adult scolex of Calliobothrium cf. verticillatum (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae). J. Parasitol. 93: 4-11 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  94. Fyler C.A., Caira J.N. 2006: Five new species of Acanthobothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from the freshwater stingray Himantura chaophraya (Batoidea: Dasyatidae) in Malaysian Borneo. J. Parasitol. 92: 105-125 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  95. Gabrion C. 1982: Origine du tegument definitif chez les cestodes cyclophyllides. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 107: 565-569
  96. Gabrion C., Euzet-Sicard S. 1979: Etude du tegument et des recepteurs sensoriels du scolex d'un plerocercoide de Cestode Tetraphyllidea a l'aide de la microscopie electronique. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 54: 573-583 Go to PubMed...
  97. Ghoshroy S., Caira J.N. 2001: Four new species of Acanthobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from the whiptail stingray Dasyatis brevis in the Gulf of California, Mexico. J. Parasitol. 87: 354-372 Go to original source...
  98. Gijon -Botella H., Del Castillo-Remiro J.A., Lopez-Roman R. 1989: Estudio al M.E.B. de Raillietina (Raillietina) micracantha Fuhrmann, 1908 parasito de Columba livia domestica capturadas en las Islas Canarias. Rev. Iber. Parasitol. 49: 37-40
  99. Gil de P ertierra A.A. 2002: Nomimoscolex semenasae n. sp. (Proteocephalidea, Monticelliidae), a cestode parasite of Diplomystes viedmensis (Pisces: Siluriformes) from the Patagonian region of Argentina. Syst. Parasitol. 53: 183-190 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  100. Gil de Pertierra A.A. 2004: Redescription of Monticellia magna (Rego, dos Santos & Silva, 1975) (Eucestoda: Monticelliidea) parasite of Pimelodus spp. (Pisces: Siluriformes) from Argentina, and morphological study of microtriches. Rev. Suisse Zool. 111: 11-20
  101. Gil de P ertierra A.A. 2005: Comparative study of the microtriches of adult cestodes (Proteocephalidea: Monticelliidae), and some comments on their systematic value. Zool. Anz. 243: 295-304 Go to original source...
  102. Gil de P ertierra A.A. 2009: Lucieaella ivanovae n. gen., n. sp. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea: Peltidocotylinae), a parasite of Ageneiosus inermis (L.) (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) in Argentina. Syst. Parasitol. 73: 71-80 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  103. Gil de P ertierra A.A., de Chambrier A. 2000: Rudolphiella szidati sp. n. (Proteocephalidea: Monticelliidae, Rudolphielliinae) parasite of Luciopimelodus pati (Valenciennes, 1840) (Pisces: Pimelodidae) from Argentina with new observations on Rudolphiella lobosa (Riggenbach, 1895). Rev. Suisse Zool. 107: 81-95
  104. Gil de Pertierra A.A., Semenas L.G. 2005: Galaxitaenia toloi n. gen., n. sp. (Eucestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from Galaxias platei (Pisces: Osmeriformes, Galaxiidae), in the Patagonian region of Argentina. J. Parasitol. 91: 900-908 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  105. Gil de Pertierra A.A., Semenas L.G. 2006: Ailinella mirabilis gen. n., sp. n. (Eucestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) in the Andean-Patagonian region of Argentina. Folia Parasitol. 53: 276-286 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  106. Goldschmidt R. 1900: Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Echinococcuskoepfchen. Zool. Jahrb. 13: 467-494
  107. Grammeltvedt A.F. 1973: Differentiation of the tegument and associated structures in Diphyllobothrium dendriticum Nitzsch (1824) (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea). An electron microscopical study. Int. J. Parasitol. 3: 321-327 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  108. Granath W.O., Lewis J.C., Esch G.W. 1983: An ultrastructural examination of the scolex and tegument of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea). Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 102: 240-250 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  109. Grytner-Ziecina B., Cielecka D., Chomicz L. 1995: Transmission electron microscopy studies on the tegument of two species of genus Fimbriaria Froelich, 1802. Acta Parasitol. 40: 88-93
  110. Halton D.W. 1982: Morphology and ultrastructure of parasitic helminths. In: D.F. Mettrick and S.S. Desser (Eds.), Parasites - Their World and Ours. Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Parasitology held in Toronto, Canada. Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp. 60-69
  111. Halton D.W., McKerr G. 1979: SEM observations on the spiral valve of rays and their cestode parasites. Parasitology 79: 47
  112. Hanzelova V., Scholz T., Fagerholm H.-P. 1995: The synonymy of the Proteocephalus neglectus La Rue, 1911 with P. exiguus La Rue, 1911, two fish cestodes from the Holarctic Region. Syst. Parasitol. 30: 173-185 Go to original source...
  113. Harris A., Heath D.D., Lawrence S.B., Shaw R.J. 1989: Echinococcus granulosus: ultrastructure of epithelial changes during the first 8 days of metacestode development in vitro. Int. J. Parasitol. 19: 621-629 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  114. Hayunga E.G. 1991: Morphological adaptations of intestinal helminths. J. Parasitol. 77: 865-873 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  115. Hayunga E.G., Mackiewicz J.S. 1975: An electron microscope study of the tegument of Hunterella nodulosa Mackiewicz and McCrae, 1962 (Cestoidea: Caryophyllidea). Int. J. Parasitol. 5: 309-319 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  116. Healy C.J. 2003: A revision of Platybothrium Linton, 1890 (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae), with a phylogenetic analysis and comments on host-parasite associations. Syst. Parasitol. 56: 85-139 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  117. Healy C.J. 2006a: Three new species of Rhinebothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from the freshwater whipray, Himantura chaophraya, in Malaysian Borneo. J. Parasitol. 92: 364-374 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  118. Healy C.J. 2006b: A revision of selected Tetraphyllidea (Cestoda): Caulobothrium, Rhabdotobothrium, Rhinebothrium, Scalithri um, and Spongiobothrium. PhD Thesis, University of Connecticut, 382 pp
  119. Hess E. 1980: Ultrastructural study of the tetrathyridium of Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925: tegument and parenchyma. Z. Parasitenkd. 61: 135-159 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  120. Hess E., Guggenheim R. 1977: A study of the microtriches and sensory processes of the tetrathyridium of Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925, by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Z. Parasitenkd. 53: 189-199 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  121. Hildreth M.B., Lumsden R.D. 1987: Microanatomy of the Otobothrium insigne plerocercus (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha). J. Parasitol. 73: 400-410 Go to original source...
  122. Hoberg E.P., Sims D.E., Odense P.H. 1995: Comparative morphology of the scolices and microtriches among five species of Tetrabothrius (Eucestoda: Tetrabothriidae). J. Parasitol. 81: 475-481 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  123. Holcman B., Heath D.D. 1997: The early stages of Echinococcus granulosus. Acta Trop. 64: 5-17 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  124. Holy J.M., Oaks J.A. 1986: Ultrastructure of the tegumental microvilli (microtriches) of Hymenolepis diminuta. Cell Tissue Res. 244: 457-466 Go to original source...
  125. Howells R.E. 1965: Electron-microscope and histochemical studies on the cuticle and subcuticular tissues of Moniezia expansa. Parasitology 55: 20P-21P
  126. Hulinska D. 1977a: An electron microscope study on the bladder surface of early developmental stages of Cysticercus tenuicollis. Folia Parasitol. 24: 261-264
  127. Hulinska D. 1977b: The fine structure and histochemistry of bleblike extrusions in the microthrix border of the larval Multiceps endothoracicus. Folia Parasitol. 24: 25-33 Go to PubMed...
  128. Hulinska D. 1978: Fine structure of cells and tissues of Cysticercus tenuicollis aged 13 and 16 days. Folia Parasitol. 25: 339-345 Go to PubMed...
  129. Hulinska D. 1980: The morphogenesis of microtriches in the tegument of Taenia hydatigena throughout its larval development. Folia Parasitol. 27: 329-336 Go to PubMed...
  130. Hulinska D. 1981: Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of the adult Multiceps endothoracicus and a comparison of its larval and adult scoleces. Folia Parasitol. 28: 349-352 Go to PubMed...
  131. Hulinska D., Lavrov V.I. 1981: Morphology and cytochemistry of the adult tapeworm Multiceps endothoracicus with emphasis on the scolex. Folia Parasitol. 28: 227-234 Go to PubMed...
  132. Hyman L. 1951: The Invertebrates. Vol. II. Platyhelminthes and Rhynchocoela. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 572 pp
  133. Irshadullah M., Nazimi W.A., Ahmad M. 1990: Polymorphism in the microtriches of adult Echinococcus granulosus: scanning electron microscopy. Zool. Anz. 224: 321-327
  134. Ishii A.I., Muranaka Y., Sano M. 1988: Ultrastructures of Diplogonoporus grandis microthrix. Jpn. J. Parasitol. 37: 178-181
  135. Ivanov V.A. 2004: A new species of Rhinebothroides Mayes, Brooks & Thorson, 1981 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from the ocellate river stingray in Argentina, with amended descriptions of two other species of the genus. Syst. Parasitol. 58: 159-174 Go to PubMed...
  136. Ivanov V.A. 2005: A new species of Acanthobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from the ocellate river stingray, Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes: Potamotrygonidae), in Argentina. J. Parasitol. 91: 390-396 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  137. Ivanov V.A. 2006: Guidus n. gen. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), with description of a new species and emendation of the generic diagnosis of Marsupiobothrium. J. Parasitol. 92: 832-840 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  138. Ivanov V.A. 2008: Orygmatobothrium spp. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from triakid sharks in Argentina: redescription of Orygmatobothrium schmittii and description of a new species. J. Parasitol. 94: 1087-1097 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  139. Ivanov V.A., Brooks D.R. 2002: Calliobothrium spp. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from Mustelus schmitti (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes) in Argentina and Uruguay. J. Parasitol. 88: 1200-1213 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  140. Ivanov V.A., Campbell R.A. 1998a: Echinobothrium megacanthum sp. n. (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) from the eagle ray Myliobatis goodei (Chondrichthyes: Rajoidei) from the Patagonian shelf of Argentina. Folia Parasitol. 45: 225-229
  141. Ivanov V.A., Campbell R.A. 1998b: A new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1849 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from Rioraja castelnaui (Chondrichthyes: Rajoidei) in coastal waters of Argentina. Syst. Parasitol. 40: 203-212 Go to original source...
  142. Ivanov V.A., Campbell R.A. 2000: Emendation of the generic diagnosis of Tylocephalum (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea: Tetragonocephalidae), and description of Tylocephalum brooksi n. sp. J. Parasitol. 86: 1085-1095 Go to PubMed...
  143. Ivanov V.A., Campbell R.A. 2002: Notomegarhynchus navonae n. gen. and n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea), from skates (Rajidae: Arhynchobatinae) in the Southern Hemisphere. J. Parasitol. 88: 340-349 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  144. Ivanov V.A., Lipshitz A. 2006: Description of a new diphyllidean parasite of triakid sharks from the deep Red Sea. J. Parasitol. 92: 841-846 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  145. Jarecka L., Michajlow W., Burt M.D.B. 1981: Comparative ultrastructure of cestode larvae and Janicki's cercomer theory. Acta Parasitol. Pol. 28: 65-72
  146. Jensen K. 2001: Four new genera and five new species of lecanicephalideans (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from elasmobranchs in the Gulf of California, Mexico. J. Parasitol. 87: 845-861 Go to original source...
  147. Jensen K. 2005: A Monograph on the Lecanicephalidea (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda). Tapeworms of Elasmobranchs Part I. University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, 241 pp
  148. Jensen K. 2006: A new species of Aberrapex Jensen, 2001 (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from Taeniura lymma (Forsskal) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from off Sabah, Malaysia. Syst. Parasitol. 64: 117-123 Go to PubMed...
  149. Jensen K., Caira J.N. 2006: The status of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), with redescription of the type species, R. myliobatidis, and description of three new species from two species of Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from Malaysian Borneo. Folia Parasitol. 53: 189- 207 Go to PubMed...
  150. Jensen K., Caira J.N. 2008: A revision of Uncibilocularis Southwell, 1925 (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) with the description of four new species. Comp. Parasitol. 75: 157-173 Go to original source...
  151. Jha R.K., Smyth J.D. 1969: Echinococcus granulosus: ultrastructure of microtriches. Exp. Parasitol. 25: 232-244 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  152. Jha R.K., Smyth J.D. 1971: Ultrastructure of the rostellar tegument of Echinococcus granulosus with special reference to biogenesis of mitochondria. Int. J. Parasitol. 1: 169-177 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  153. Jilek R., Crites J.L. 1980: Scanning electron microscopic examination of the scolex and external tegumental surface of Proteocephalus ambloplitis. J. Microsc. 118: 443-446 Go to original source...
  154. Jones A. 1975: The morphology of Bothriocephalus scorpii (Mueller) (Pseudophyllidea, Bothriocephalidae) from littoral fishes in Britain. J. Helminthol. 49: 251-261 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  155. Jones M.K. 1989: Ultrastructure of the cirrus pouch of Cylindrotaenia hickmani (Jones, 1985) (Cestoda, Nematotaeniidae). Int. J. Parasitol. 19: 919-930 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  156. Jones M.K. 1998: Structure and diversity of cestode epithelia. Int. J. Parasitol. 28: 913-923. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  157. Jones M.K. 2000: Ultrastructure of the scolex, rhyncheal system and bothridial pits of Otobothrium mugilis (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha). Folia Parasitol. 47: 29-38 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  158. Jones M.K., Beveridge I. 1998: Nybelinia queenslandensis sp. n. (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) parasitic in Carcharhinus melanopterus, from Australia, with observations on the fine structure of the scolex including the rhyncheal system. Folia Parasitol. 45: 295-311
  159. Kent H.N. 1957: Aspect biochimique de la specificite chez les cestodes. In: J. Baer (Ed.), First Symposium on Host Specificity Among Parasites of Vertebrates. Int. Union Biol. Sci. and University of Neuchatel, Neuchatel, Switzerland, pp. 293-309
  160. Kuchta R., Scholz T. 2008: A new triaenophorid tapeworm from blackfish Centrolophus niger. J. Parasitol. 94: 500-504 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  161. Kuchta R., Scholz T., Brabec J., Jirsova D., Gustinelli A. 2008a: Bothriocephalidean tapeworms (Cestoda) from the blackfish, Centrolophus niger (Perciformes: Centrolophidae). Folia Parasitol. 55: 111-121 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  162. Kuchta R., Scholz T., Bray R.A. 2008b: Revision of the order Bothriocephalidea Kuchta, Scholz, Brabec & Bray, 2008 (Eucestoda) with amended generic diagnoses and keys to families and genera. Syst. Parasitol. 71: 81-136 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  163. Kuchta R., Scholz T., Vlckova R., Riha M., Walter T., Yuniar A.T., Palm H.W. 2009: Revision of tapeworms (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) from lizardfish (Saurida: Synodontidae) from the Indo-Pacific region. Zootaxa 1977: 55-67
  164. Kuperman B.I. 1980: Fine structure of cestode tegument and its significance for systematics. Parazitol. Sb. 29: 84-95. (In Russian, with English summary.)
  165. Kuperman B.I. 1988: Functional Morphology of Lower Cestodes: Ontogenetic and Evolutionary Aspects. Nauka, Leningrad, 167 pp. (In Russian with English summary.)
  166. Kwa B.H. 1972: Studies on the sparganum of Spirometra erinacei - III. The fine structure of the tegument in the scolex. Int. J. Parasitol. 2: 35-43 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  167. Lee D.L. 1966: The structure and composition of the helminth cuticle. In: B. Dawes (Ed.), Advances in Parasitology, Vol. 4. Academic Press, London, pp. 187-254
  168. Leuckart R. 1886: Parasites of man and the diseases which proceed from them. Pentland, Edinburgh, p. 269-295
  169. Levron C., Poddubnaya L.G., Kuchta R., Freeman M., Wang Y.-H., Scholz T. 2008a: Ultrastructure of the tegument of the cestode Paraechinophallus japonicus (Bothriocephalidea: Echinophallidae), a parasite of the bathypelagic fish Psenopsis anomala. Invertebr. Biol. 127: 153-161 Go to original source...
  170. Levron C., Poddubnaya L.G., Kuchta R., Freeman M., Wang Y.-H., Scholz T. 2008b: First SEM and TEM study of the armed male terminal genitalia of the tapeworm Paraechinophallus japonicus (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea). J. Parasitol. 94: 803-810 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  171. Levron C., Scholz T., Dezfuli B.S. 2008c: Ultrastructure of microtriches on the scolex of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea). Folia Parasitol. 55: 309-312 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  172. Lumsden R.D. 1966: Cytological studies on the absorptive surfaces of cestodes. I. The fine structure of the strobilar integument. Z. Parasitenkd. 27: 355-382 Go to PubMed...
  173. Lumsden R.D. 1975a: Surface ultrastructure and cytochemistry of parasitic helminths. Exp. Parasitol. 37: 267-339 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  174. Lumsden R.D. 1975b: The tapeworm tegument: a model system for studies on membrane structure and function in host-parasite relationships. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 94: 501-507 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  175. Lumsden R.D., Gonzalez G., Mills R.R., Viles J.M. 1968: Cytological studies on the absorptive surfaces of cestodes. III. Hydrolysis of phosphate esters. J. Parasitol. 54: 524-535 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  176. Lumsden R.D., Hildreth M.B. 1983: The fine structure of adult tapeworms. In: C. Arme and P.W. Pappas (Eds.), Biology of the Eucestoda, Vol. 1. Academic Press, London, New York, pp. 182-191
  177. Lumsden R.D., Murphy W.A. 1980: Morphological and functional aspects of the cestode surface. In: C.B. Cook, P.W. Pappas and E.D. Rudolph (Eds.), Cellular Interactions in Symbiosis and Parasitism. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, pp. 95-130
  178. Lumsden R.D., Oaks J.A., Mueller J.F. 1974: Brush border development in the tegument of the tapeworm, Spirometra mansonoides. J. Parasitol. 60: 209-226 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  179. Lumsden R.D., Specian R. 1980: The morphology, histology and fine structure of the adult stage of the cyclophyllidean tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. In: H.P. Arai (Ed.), Biology of the Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. Academic Press, New York, pp. 157-280
  180. Lyngdoh R.D., Tandon V. 1996: Surface topographical and ultrastructural studies on a caryophyllidean cestode, Lytocestus indicus (Lytocestidae). J. Parasitol. Appl. Anim. Biol. 5: 67-74
  181. Lyons K.M. 1969: The fine structure of the body wall of Gyrocotyle urna. Z. Parasitenkd. 33: 95-109 Go to original source...
  182. Mackiewicz J.S. 1972: Caryophyllidea (Cestoidea): a review. Exp. Parasitol. 31: 417-512 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  183. MacKinnon B.M., Burt M.D.B. 1983: Polymorphism of microtriches in the cysticercoid of Ophryocotyle insignis Loennberg, 1890 from the limpet Patella vulgata. Can. J. Zool. 61: 1062- 1070 Go to original source...
  184. MacKinnon B.M., Burt M.D.B. 1984: The development of the tegument and cercomer of the polycephalic larvae (cercoscolices) of Paricterotaenia paradoxa (Rudolphi, 1802) (Cestoda: Dilepididae) at the ultrastructural level. Parasitology 88: 117- 130 Go to original source...
  185. MacKinnon B.M., Burt M.D.B. 1985a: Histological and ultrastructural observations on the secondary scolex and strobila of Haplobothrium globuliforme (Cestoda: Haplobothrioidea). Can. J. Zool. 63: 1995-2000 Go to original source...
  186. MacKinnon B.M., Burt M.D.B. 1985b: The comparative ultrastructure of the plerocercoid and adult primary scolex of Haplobothrium globuliforme Cooper, 1914 (Cestoda: Haplobothrioidea). Can. J. Zool. 63: 1488-1496 Go to original source...
  187. MacKinnon B.M., Jarecka L., Burt M.D.B. 1985: Ultrastructure of the tegument and penetration glands of developing procercoids of Haplobothrium globuliforme Cooper, 1914 (Cestoda: Haplobothrioidea). Can. J. Zool. 63: 1470-1477 Go to original source...
  188. Marques J.F., Santos M.J., Gibson D.I., Cabral H.N., Olson P.D. 2007: Cryptic species of Didymobothrium rudolphii (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea) from the sand sole, Solea lascaris, off the Portuguese coast, with an analysis of their molecules, morphology, ultrastructure and phylogeny. Parasitology 134: 1057-1072 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  189. McCaig M.L.O., Hopkins C.A. 1965: Studies on Schistocephalus solidus. 3. The in vitro cultivation of the plerocercoid. Parasitology 55: 257-268 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  190. McCullough J.S., Fairweather I. 1983: A SEM study of the cestodes Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris, Phyllobothrium squali and Gilquinia squali from the spiny dogfish. Z. Parasitenkd. 69: 655-665 Go to original source...
  191. McKenzie V.J., Caira J.N. 1998: Three new genera and species of tapeworms from the longnose sawshark, Pristiophorus cirratus, with comments on their modes of attachment to the spiral intestine. J. Parasitol. 84: 409-421. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  192. McVicar A.H. 1972: The ultrastructure of the parasite-host interface of three tetraphyllidean tapeworms of the elasmobranch Raja naevus. Parasitology 65: 77-88 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  193. Mehlhorn H., Becker B., Andrews P., Thomas H. 1981: On the nature of the proglottids of cestodes: A light and electron microscopic study on Taenia, Hymenolepis, and Echinococcus. Z. Parasitenkd. 65: 243-259 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  194. Menoret A., Ivanov V.A. 2009: A new species of tetraphyllidean (Cestoda) from the largespot river stingray, Potamotrygon falkneri (Potamotrygonidae: Chondrichthyes), from the Parana Basin. J. Parasitol. 95: 994-999 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  195. Mizinska-Boevska Y., Polyakova -Krusteva O., Fok E. 1989: Transmission and scanning electron microscopic observations on the body wall surface of Taenia hydatigena and its metacestode, Cysticercus tenuicollis (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea). Parasitol. Hung. 22: 57-61
  196. Moniez R.B. 1881: Memoires sur les Cestodes. Oct. Doin, Paris, 238 pp
  197. Morris G.P., Finnegan C.V. 1969: Studies of the differentiating plerocercoid cuticle of Schistocephalus solidus. II. The ultrastructural examination of cuticle development. Can. J. Zool. 47: 957-964 Go to original source...
  198. Morseth D.J. 1966: The fine structure of the tegument of adult Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, and Taenia pisiformis. J. Parasitol. 52: 1074-1085 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  199. Morseth D.J. 1967: Fine structure of the hydatid cyst and protoscolex of Echinococcus granulosus. J. Parasitol. 53: 312-325 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  200. Mount P.J. 1970: Histogenesis of rostellar hooks of Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) (Cestoda). J. Parasitol. 56: 947-961 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  201. Nasin C.S., Caira J.N., Euzet L. 1997: Analysis of Calliobothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) with descriptions of three new species and erection of a new genus. J. Parasitol. 83: 714-733 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  202. Neifar L., Tyler G.A., Euzet L. 2001: Two new species of Macrobothridium (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) from rhinobatid elasmobranchs in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia, with notes on the status of the genus. J. Parasitol. 87: 673-680 Go to PubMed...
  203. Nishiyama T., Takahashi Y., Ishizaka S., Araki T. 1993: Scanning electron microscopic observation of the scolex of Diplogonoporus grandis. J. Nara Med. Assoc. 31: 262-264
  204. Novak M., Dowsett J.A. 1983: Scanning electron microscopy of the metacestode of Taenia crassiceps. Int. J. Parasitol. 13: 383-388 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  205. Olson P.D., Caira J.N. 2001: Two new species of Litobothrium Dailey, 1969 (Cestoda: Litobothriidea) from thresher sharks in the Gulf of California, Mexico, with redescriptions of two species in the genus. Syst. Parasitol. 48: 159-177 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  206. Palm H.W. 1995: Untersuchungen zur Systematik von Ruesselbandwuermern (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) aus atlantischen Fischen. Berichte aus dem Institut fuer Meereskunde an der Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, No. 275, 238 pp
  207. Palm H.W. 1997: Trypanorhynch cestodes of commercial fishes from northeast Brazilian coastal waters. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 92: 69-79 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  208. Palm H.W. 2000: Trypanorhynch cestodes from Indonesian coastal waters (East Indian Ocean). Folia Parasitol. 47: 123-134 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  209. Palm H.W. 2004: The Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863. PKSPL-IPB Press, Bogor, 710 pp
  210. Palm H.W. 2008: Surface ultrastructure of the elasmobranchia parasitizing Grillotiella exilis and Pseudonybelinia odontacantha (Trypanorhyncha, Cestoda). Zoomorphology 127: 249-258 Go to original source...
  211. Palm H.W., Mundt U., Overstreet R. 2000: Sensory receptors and surface ultrastructure of trypanorhynch cestodes. Parasitol. Res. 86: 821-833 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  212. Palm H.W., Poynton S.L., Rutledge P. 1998: Surface ultrastructure of plerocercoids of Bombycirhynchus sphyraenaicum (Pintner, 1930) (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha). Parasitol. Res. 84: 195-204 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  213. Palm H.W., Schroeder P. 2001: Cestode parasites from the elasmobranchs Heptranchias perlo and Deania from the Great Meteor Bank, central East Atlantic. Aquat. Living Resour. 14: 137-144 Go to original source...
  214. Park W.-C., Kang S.-Y., Lee S.-H. 1981: Study on the fine structure of sparganum tegument. Chung-Ang J. Med. 6: 29-38
  215. Poddubnaya L.G. 1995: Peculiarities of the integument genesis in procercoids of caryophyllidean cestodes. Parazitologiya 29: 13-18. (In Russian, with English summary.)
  216. Poddubnaya L.G. 1996: A development of microtriches in caryophylloid cestodes. Parazitologiya 30: 126-131. (In Russian, with English summary.)
  217. Poddubnaya L.G. 2002a: Ultrastructure of genital system ducts of Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): the ducts of the female reproductive system. Parazitologiya 36: 79-87. (In Russian, with English summary.)
  218. Poddubnaya L.G. 2002b: Ultrastructure of reproductive ducts in Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) males. Zool. Zh. 81: 394-405. (In Russian, with English summary.)
  219. Poddubnaya L.G. 2003a: Structure of reproductive systems of the amphicotyllide cestode Eubothrium rugosum (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidae). J. Evol. Biochem. Physiol. 39: 345-355 Go to original source...
  220. Poddubnaya L.G. 2003b: Ultrastructure of reproductive organs and ducts in the progenetic species Archigetes sieboldi (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea). Zool. Zh. 82: 1038-1050. (In Russian, with English summary.)
  221. Poddubnaya L.G. 2007: Fine structure of the cirrus sac and vagina of progenetic Diplocotyle olrikii (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea). Parazitologiya 41: 299-308. (In Russian, with English summary.)
  222. Poddubnaya L., Brunanska M., Kuchta R., Scholz T. 2006: First evidence of the presence of microtriches in the Gyrocotylidea. J. Parasitol. 92: 703-707 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  223. Poddubnaya L.G., Davydov V.G., Kuperman B.I. 1986: [Morphofunctional study of some cestodes of the order Caryophyllidea (Cestoda).] Trud. Inst. Biol. Vnutr. Vod 53: 208-217. (In Russian.)
  224. Poddubnaya L.G., Mackiewicz J.S. 2009: Ultrastructure of the cirrus sac of echinophallid tapeworms (Cestoda, Bothriocephalidea) and the terminology of cirrus hard structures. Int. J. Parasitol. 39: 381-390 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  225. Poddubnaya L.G., Mackiewicz J.S., Brunanska M., Dezfuli B.S. 2005a: Fine structure of the male reproductive ducts, vagina and seminal receptacle of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea). Folia Parasitol. 52: 241-250 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  226. Poddubnaya L.G., Mackiewicz J.S., Brunanska M., Scholz T. 2005b: Fine structure of the female reproductive ducts of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda: Spathebothriidea), from salmonid fish. Folia Parasitol. 52: 323-338 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  227. Poddubnaya L.G., Mackiewicz J.S., Kuperman B.I. 2003: Ultrastructure of Archigetes sieboldi (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea): relationship between progenesis, development and evolution. Folia Parasitol. 50: 275-292 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  228. Poddubnaya L.G., Scholz T., Kuchta R., Levron C., Brunanska M. 2007: Ultrastructure of the proglottid tegument (neodermis) of the cestode Echinophallus wageneri (Pseudophyllidea: Echi nophallidae), a parasite of the bathypelagic fish Centrolophus niger. Parasitol. Res. 101: 373-383 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  229. Pool W., Chubb J.C. 1985: A critical scanning electron microscope study of the scolex of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, with a review of the taxonomic history of the genus Bothriocephalus parasitizing cyprinid fishes. Syst. Parasitol. 7: 199-211 Go to original source...
  230. Pratt H.S. 1909: The cuticula and subcuticula of trematodes and cestodes. Am. Natur. 43: 705-729 Go to original source...
  231. Probert A.J., Stobart B. 1989: Echinobothrium clavatum n. sp. (Cestoda, Diphyllidea) from the spiral valve of Raja clavata L., 1758, including a note on its ultrastructure and a key to species of the genus. Syst. Parasitol. 13: 71-79 Go to original source...
  232. Race G.J., Larsh J.E., Jr., Esch G.W., Martin J.H. 1965: A study of the larval stage of Multiceps serialis by electron microscopy. J. Parasitol. 51: 364-369 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  233. Read C.P. 1955: Intestinal physiology and the host-parasite relationship. In: W.H. Cole (Ed.), Some Physiological Aspects and Consequences of Parasitism. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, pp. 27-49
  234. Rees G. 1958: A comparison of the structure of the scolex of Bothriocephalus scorpii (Mueller 1776) and Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rud. 1819) and the mode of attachment of the scolex to the intestine of the host. Parasitology 48: 468-492 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  235. Rees G. 1973: The ultrastructure of the cysticercoid of Tatria octacantha Rees, 1973 (Cyclophyllidea: Amabiliidae) from the haemocoele of the damsel-fly nymphs Pyrrhosoma nymphula, Sulz and Enallagma cyathigerum, Charp. Parasitology 67: 83- 103
  236. Rego A.A. 1999: Scolex morphology of proteocephalid cestodes parasites of neotropical freshwater fishes. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 94: 37-52 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  237. Rego A.A., Chubb J.C., Pavanelli G.C. 1999: Cestodes in South American freshwater teleost fishes: keys of genera and brief description of species. Rev. Brasil. Zool. 16: 299-367 Go to original source...
  238. Reyda F.B. 2008: Intestinal helminths of freshwater stingrays in southeastern Peru, and a new genus and two new species of cestode. J. Parasitol. 94: 684-699 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  239. Reyda F.B., Caira J.N. 2006: Five new species of Acanthobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from Himantura uarnacoides (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in Malaysian Borneo. Comp. Parasitol. 73: 49-71 Go to original source...
  240. Richards K.S., Arme C. 1981a: Observations on the microtriches and stages in their development and emergence in Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Caryophyllidea: Cestoda). Int. J. Parasitol. 11: 369-375 Go to original source...
  241. Richards K.S., Arme C. 1981b: The ultrastructure of the scolexneck syncytium, neck cells and frontal gland cells of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Caryophyllidea: Cestoda). Parasitology 83: 477-487 Go to original source...
  242. Richards K.S., Arme C. 1984: Maturation of the scolex syncytium in the metacestode of Hymenolepis diminuta, with special reference to microthrix formation. Parasitology 88: 341-349
  243. Richmond C., Caira J.N. 1991: Morphological investigations into Floriceps minacanthus (Trypanorhyncha: Lacistorhynchidae) with analysis of the systematic utility of scolex microtriches. Syst. Parasitol. 19: 25-32
  244. Rietschel P.E. 1935: Zur Bewegungsphysiologie der Cestoden. Zool. Anz. 111: 109-111
  245. Rifkin E., Cheng T.C., Hohl H.R. 1970: The fine structure of the tegument of Tylocephalum metacestodes: with emphasis on a new type of microvilli. J. Morphol. 130: 11-24 Go to original source...
  246. Rogan M.T., Richards K.S. 1987: Echinococcus granulosus: changes in the surface ultrastructure during protoscolex formation. Parasitology 94: 359-367 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  247. Rohde K. 1986: Ultrastructural studies of Austramphilina elongata Johnston, 1931 (Cestoda, Amphilinidea). Zoomorphology 106: 91-102 Go to original source...
  248. Rohde K., Georgi M. 1983: Structure and development of Austramphilina elongata Johnston, 1931 (Cestodaria: Amphilinidea). Int. J. Parasitol. 13: 273-287 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  249. Rosario B. 1962: The ultrastructure of the cuticle in the cestodes H. nana and H. diminuta. The Fifth International Congress for Electron Microscopy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, August 29th to September 5th, 1962 2: LL-12
  250. Rothman A.H. 1959: The physiology of tapeworms, correlated to structures seen with the electron microscope. J. Parasitol. 45 (Suppl.): 28
  251. Rothman A.H. 1963: Electron microscopic studies of tapeworms: the surface structures of Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819) Blanchard, 1891. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 82: 22-30 Go to original source...
  252. Ruhnke T.R. 1993: A new species of Clistobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), with an evaluation of the systematic status of the genus. J. Parasitol. 79: 37-43 Go to original source...
  253. Ruhnke T.R. 1994a: Paraorygmatobothrium barberi n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), with amended descriptions of two species transferred to the genus. Syst. Parasitol. 28: 65-79 Go to original source...
  254. Ruhnke T.R. 1994b: Resurrection of Anthocephalum Linton, 1890 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) and taxonomic information on five proposed members. Syst. Parasitol. 29: 159-176
  255. Ruhnke T.R. 1996a: Taxonomic resolution of Phyllobothrium van Beneden (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) and a description of a new species from the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata. Syst. Parasitol. 33: 1-12
  256. Ruhnke T.R. 1996b: Systematic resolution of Crossobothrium Linton, 1889, and taxonomic resolution of four species allocated to that genus. J. Parasitol. 82: 793-800 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  257. Ruhnke T.R., Caira J.N. 2009: Two new species of Anthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 (Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae) from carcharhinid sharks, with a redescription of Anthobothrium laciniatum. Syst. Parasitol. 72: 217-227 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  258. Ruhnke T.R., Caira J.N., Carpenter S.D. 2006a: Orectolobicestus n. g. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea), with the description of five new species and the transfer of Phyllobothrium chiloscyllii to the new genus. Syst. Parasitol. 65: 215-233 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  259. Ruhnke T.R., Carpenter S.D. 2008: Two new species of Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 (Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae) from the smooth-hound Mustelus mustelus (L.) and the gummy shark M. antarcticus Guenther (Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae). Syst Parasitol. 71: 213-222 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  260. Ruhnke T.R., Healy C.J., Shapero S. 2006b: Two new species of Paraorygmatobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from weasel sharks (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae) of Australia and Borneo. J. Parasitol. 92: 145-150 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  261. Ruhnke T.R., Thompson V.A. 2006: Two new species of Paraorygmatobothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae) from the lemon sharks Negaprion brevirostris and Negaprion acutidens (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae). Comp. Parasitol. 73: 35-47 Go to original source...
  262. Rundell H.L. 1957: Electron microscope studies of the body covering of cestodes. PhD Thesis, State University of Iowa, 48 pp
  263. Schiefferdecker P. 1874: Beitraege zur Kenntnis des feineren Baues der Taenien. Jena. Z. Naturwiss. 8: 458-487
  264. Scholz T., de Chambrier A., Kuchta R. 2008: Redescription of the tapeworm Monticellia amazonica de Chambrier et Vaucher, 1997 (Cestoda, Proteocephalidea), a parasite of Calophysus macropterus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) from the Amazon River. Acta Parasitol. 53: 30-35 Go to original source...
  265. Scholz T., Zdarska Z., de Chambrier A., Drabek R. 1999: Scolex morphology of the cestode Silurotaenia siluri (Batsch, 1786) (Proteocephalidae: Gangesiinae), a parasite of European wels (Silurus glanis). Parasitol. Res. 85: 1-6 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  266. Schramlova J., Lavrov I.L. 1981: Scanning electron microscopic studies on the scolex surface of Hydatigera krepkogorski (Schulz et Landa, 1934) larva. Folia Parasitol. 28: 191-192
  267. Seif A.I. 1992: Ultrastructural study of the tegument of Cotugnia polyacantha and Killigrewia streptopelia inhabiting the dove Streptopelia senegalensis aegyptiaca. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol. 22: 817-826 Go to PubMed...
  268. Shields J.D. 1985: Surface morphology and description of Otobothrium kurisi new species (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from a hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Int. J. Parasitol. 15: 635- 643 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  269. Siddiqui E.H. 1963: The cuticle of cysticerci of Taenia saginata, T. hydatigena, and T. pisiformis. Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 104: 141-144
  270. Smyth J.D. 1969: Physiology of Cestodes. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 279 pp
  271. Smyth J.D., McManus D.P. 1989: The Physiology and Biochemistry of Cestodes. Cambridge University Press, New York, 398 pp
  272. Sommer F.B.G., Landois L. 1872: Ueber den Bau der geschlechtsreifen Glieder von Bothriocephalus latus Bremser (Beitraege zur Anatomie der Cestoden). Z. Wiss. Zool. 22: 40-99
  273. Steudener F. 1877: Untersuchungen ueber den feineren Bau der Cestoden. Abh. Naturforsch. Ges. Halle 13: 277-316
  274. Stoitsova S.R., Georgiev B.B., Vasileva G.P., Jordanova M. 2001: Rostellar apparatus of Fernandezia spinosissima (von Linstow, 1894) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Davaineidae): microanatomy and fine structure. Acta Zool. 82: 241-250 Go to original source...
  275. Tedesco J.L., Coggins J.R. 1980: Electron microscopy of the tumulus and origin of associated structures within the tegument of Eubothrium salvelini Schrank, 1790 (Cestoidea: Pseudophyllidea). Int. J. Parasitol. 10: 275-280 Go to original source...
  276. Thomas L.P. 1983: Fine structure of the tentacles and associated microanatomy of Haplobothrium globuliforme (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea). J. Parasitol. 69: 719-730 Go to original source...
  277. Thompson R.C.A., Hayton A.R., Jue S ue L.P. 1980: An ultrastructural study of the microtriches of adult Proteocephalus tidswelli (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea). Z. Parasitenkd. 64: 95-111 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  278. Thompson R.C.A., Houghton A., Zaman V. 1982: A study of the microtriches of adult Echinococcus granulosus by scanning electron microscopy. Int. J. Parasitol. 12: 579-583 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  279. Threadgold L.T. 1962: An electron microscope study of the tegument and associated structures of Dipylidium caninum. Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 103: 135-140
  280. Threadgold L.T. 1964: The ultrastructure of the tegument of Proteocephalus pollanicoli [sic]. Third European Regional Conference on Electron Microscopy, Prague, pp. 563-564
  281. Threadgold L.T. 1965: An electron microscope study of the tegument and associated structures of Proteocephalus pollanicoli. Parasitology 55: 467-472 Go to original source...
  282. Threadgold L.T. 1984: Parasitic Platyhelminths. In: J. BereiterHahn, A.G. Matoltsy and K.S. Richards (Eds.), Biology of the Integument: I. Invertebrates (Vol. 1). Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York, pp. 132-191
  283. Threadgold L.T., Dunn J. 1983: Taenia crassiceps: regional variations in ultrastructure and evidence of endocytosis in the cysticercus tegument. Exp. Parasitol. 55: 121-131 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  284. Timofeev V.A., Kuperman B.I. 1972: [Appearance and formation of microtrichia in cestodes as exemplified by Triaenophorus nodulosus according to electron-microscope data.] Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 207: 757-759. (In Russian.) Go to PubMed...
  285. Tsuboi T., Torii M., Hirai K. 1993: Light and scanning electron microscopy of Diphyllobothrium pacificum expelled from man. Jpn. J. Parasitol. 42: 422-428
  286. Twohig M.E., Caira J.N., Fyler C.A. 2008: Two new cestode species from the dwarf whipray, Himantura walga (Batoidea: Dasyatidae), from Borneo, with comments on site and mode of attachment. J. Parasitol. 94: 1118-1127 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  287. Tyler G.A. 2001: Diphyllidean cestodes of the Gulf of California, Mexico with descriptions of two new species of Echinobothrium (Cestoda: Diphyllidea). J. Parasitol. 87: 173-184 Go to PubMed...
  288. Tyler G.A. 2006: A Monograph on the Diphyllidea (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda). Tapeworms of Elasmobranchs. Part II. University of Nebraska State Museum, Lincoln, Nebraska, 142 pp
  289. Tyler G.A., Caira J.N. 1999: Two new species of Echinobothrium (Cestoidea: Diphyllidea) from myliobatiform elasmobranchs in the Gulf of California, Mexico. J. Parasitol. 85: 327-335 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  290. Ubelaker J.E. 1980: Structure and ultrastructure of the larvae and metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta. In: H.P. Arai (Ed.), Biology of the Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. Academic Press, New York, pp. 59-156
  291. Ubelaker J.E., Allison V.F., Specian R.D. 1973: Surface topography of Hymenolepis diminuta by scanning electron microscopy. J. Parasitol. 59: 667-671 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  292. Valkounova J., Prokopic J. 1980: Morphology of the cysticercoid of Hymenolepis erinacei (Gmelin, 1789). Folia Parasitol. 27: 53-57 Go to PubMed...
  293. Voge M. 1962: Observations on the structure of the cysticercus of Taenia hydatigena Pallas, 1766. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 29: 62-66
  294. Voge M. 1963: Observations on the structure of cysticerci of Taenia solium and T. saginata (Cestoda: Taeniidae). J. Parasitol. 49: 85-90 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  295. Voge M., Sogandares-Bernal F., Martin J.H. 1979: Fine structure of the tegument of Mesocestoides tetrathyridia by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. J. Parasitol. 65: 562-567 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  296. Waitz J.A. 1961: Studies of the ultrastructure of larval Hydatigera taeniaeformis. J. Parasitol. 47 (Suppl.): 27
  297. Whittaker F.H., Apkarian R.P., Curless B., Carvajal J.G. 1985: Scanning electron microscopy of the scolices of the cestodes Parachristianella monomegacantha Kruse 1959 (Trypanorhyncha) and Phyllobothrium sp. Beneden 1849 (Tetraphyllidea). J. Parasitol. 71: 376-381 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  298. Whittaker F.H., Carvajal J.G. 1980: Scanning electron microscopy of scolices of some cestodes from elasmobranchs. Proc. Helminthol. Soc. Wash. 47: 256-259
  299. Whittaker F.H., Carvajal J.G., Apkarian R. 1982: Scanning electron microscopy of the scolex of Grillotia dollfusi Carvajal 1971 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha). J. Parasitol. 68: 1173-1175 Go to original source...
  300. Yamane Y. 1968: On the fine structure of Diphyllobothrium erinacei with special reference to the tegument. Yonago Acta Med. 12: 169-181 Go to PubMed...
  301. Yamane Y., Bylund G., Abe K., Osaki Y., Okamoto T. 1989: Scanning electron microscopic study of four Diphyllobothrium species. Parasitol. Res. 75: 238-244 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  302. Yamane Y., Maejima J., Yazaki S. 1975: Scanning electron microscopic observation of the tegumental structure of diphyllobothriid cestodes. Yonago Acta Med. 19: 197-206. Go to PubMed...
  303. Yamane Y., Nakagawa A., Makino Y., Hirai K. 1982a: An electron microscopic study of subtegumental cells and associated structures of Spirometra erinacei. Jpn. J. Parasitol. 31: 487-497
  304. Yamane Y., Nakagawa A., Makino Y., Yazaki S., Fukumoto S. 1982b: Ultrastructure of the tegument of Diphyllobothrium latum by scanning electron microscopy. Jpn. J. Parasitol. 31: 33-46
  305. Yazaki S., Fukumoto S., Maejima J. 1990: Cytoskeletal construction and alteration of microtriches of Diphyllobothrium hottai, during early development stages. Jpn. J. Parasitol. 39: 165-171
  306. Young R.T. 1908: The histogenesis of Cysticercus pisiformis. Zool. Jahrb. 26: 183-254
  307. Zdarska Z., Nebesarova J. 1997: Ultrastructure of three types of scolex gland cells in adult Bothriocephalus claviceps (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea). Folia Parasitol. 44: 139-146
  308. Zdarska Z., Nebesarova J. 1999: Regional ultrastructural differences of the scolex and neck tegument of Proteocephalus macrocephalus (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae). Folia Parasitol. 46: 279-283
  309. Zdarska Z., Nebasarova J. 2003: Ultrastructure of the early rostellum of Silurotaenia siluri (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae). Parasitol. Res. 89: 495-500 Go to PubMed...
  310. Zdarska Z., Nebesarova J. 2005: Transmission electron microscopy of the scolex and neck microtriches of Silurotaenia siluri (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea). Parasitol. Res. 97: 98-102 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  311. Zdarska Z., Scholz T., Nebesarova J. 2004: Ultrastructure of the apical glandular region of the scolex of Proteocephalus torulosus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae). Folia Parasitol. 51: 333-338 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...