Folia Parasitologica 57 62-68 (2010) | 10.14411/fp.2010.008
The effects of condensed tannins (CTs) extracted from five species of plants on egg hatching and larval development of Teladorsagia circumcincta (Stadelmann, 1894) (syn. Ostertagia circumcincta) were evaluated using in vitro bioassays. The extracts of CTs were obtained from Lotus pedunculatus (LP), Lotus corniculatus (LC), Dorycnium pentaphyllum (DP), Dorycnium rectum (DR) and Rumex obtusifolius (RO). The results of egg hatching assay showed that about 53%, 68%, 51%, 60% and 46% of the eggs hatched when in vitro incubations contained 900 mg/ml of CTs from LP, LC, DP, DR and RO, respectively (P< 0.001 relative to control incubation), while in control incubations (no CT added) 87% of the eggs hatched. In the larval development assay, development was allowed to proceed for 7 days, by which time 89% of the hatched larvae in control wells (no CTs) had reached the infective third stage (L3). In incubations containing 200 mg CT from LP, LC, DP, DR and RO/ml, about 8%, 15%, 14%, 8% and 4% of the eggs attained full development to L3 larvae, respectively (P< 0.001 relative to control incubation). Only 1% of the eggs were able to develop to L3 larvae in incubations containing 400 mg CT extracted from LC/ml, whilst in the incubations containing the same concentration of other CTs the eggs were not able to develop to L3 larvae. It seems that CTs are not only slowing down the larval development but also kill the undeveloped larvae. At 400 mg/ml, for example, CT from LP, LC, DP, DR and RO killed 67%, 48%, 68%, 93% and 91% of first-stage (L1) and second-stage (L2) larvae, respectively. This study shows that CTs are able to disrupt the life cycle of nematodes.
Received: July 31, 2009; Accepted: November 11, 2009; Published: March 1, 2010