Folia Parasitologica, vol. 58 (2011), issue 3

Folia Parasitologica 58[3] 197-223 (2011) | 10.14411/fp.2011.020

Revision of Khawia spp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish, including a key to their identification and molecular phylogeny

Tomáš Scholz1, Jan Brabec1, Ivica Kráľová-Hromadová2, Mikuláš Oros2, Eva Bazsalovicsová2, Alexey Ermolenko3, Vladimíra Hanzelová2
1 Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, and Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
2 Parasitological Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Hlinkova 3, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic
3 Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia

Monozoic cestodes of the genus Khawia Hsü, 1935 (Caryophyllidea: Lytocestidae), parasites of cyprinid fish in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America, are revised on the basis of taxonomic evaluation of extensive materials, including recently collected specimens of most species. This evaluation has made it possible to critically assess the validity of all 17 nominal species of the genus and to provide redescriptions of the following seven species considered to be valid: Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (type species); K. armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915); K. baltica Szidat, 1941; K. japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934); K. parva (Zmeev, 1936); K. rossittensis (Szidat, 1937); and K. saurogobii Xi, Oros, Wang, Wu, Gao et Nie, 2009. Several new synonyms are proposed: Khawia barbi Rahemo et Mohammad, 2002 and K. lutei Al-Kalak et Rahemo, 2003 are synonymized with K. armeniaca; K. coregoni Kritscher, 1990 with Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (family Caryophyllaeidae); K. cyprini Li, 1964 and K. iowensis Calentine et Ulmer, 1961 with K. japonensis; K. dubia (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex dubius Szidat, 1937) with K. rossittensis; and Tsengia neimongkuensis Li, 1964 and T. xiamenensis Liu, Yang et Lin, 1995 with K. sinensis. Khawia prussica (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex prussicus Szidat, 1937) is considered to be species incertae sedis, but its morphology indicates it may belong to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Caryophyllaeidae). The molecular analysis of all seven valid species, based on comparison of sequences of two nuclear ribosomal and two mitochondrial genes, has shown that the species form three major groups clustered according to their fish hosts. Five species from common and crucian carp and goldfish were grouped together, whereas K. armeniaca from barbels (Barbinae) and K. baltica from tench (Tinca) formed separate clades. In contrast, geographical distribution does not seem to play a crucial role in grouping of individual taxa. A phylogenetic tree based on morphological characters was incongruent with that inferred from molecular data, which indicates that some morphological traits may be homoplastic. A key to identification of all species of Khawia based on morphological characteristics is provided.

Keywords: tapeworms, freshwater fish, comparative morphology, taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships, identification, DNA sequences, Holarctic Region

Received: February 12, 2011; Accepted: June 7, 2011; Published: September 21, 2011


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