Folia Parasitologica, vol. 59 (2012), issue 2

Folia Parasitologica 59[2] 81-86 (2012) | 10.14411/fp.2012.012

Ultrastructural characteristics of Nematopsis sp. oocysts (Apicomplexa: Porosporidae), a parasite of the clam Meretrix meretrix (Veneridae) from the Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki1,2, Saleh Al-Quraishy1, Mohamed A. Dkhil1,3, Ibraheem Al Nasr4, Elsa Oliveira5, Graça Casal5,6, Carlos Azevedo1,5
1 Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
3 Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt
4 Science Department, Teacher's College, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICBAS/UP) and Laboratory of Pathology, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR/UP), University of Porto, Lg. Abel Salazar no. 2, 4099-123 Porto, Portugal
6 Departamento de Ciências, Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde - Norte (CESPU), 4585-116 Gandra, Portugal

This paper describes the fine structure of oocysts of Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa, Porosporidae) found in the abductor muscles of seawater clams, Meretrix meretrix (Linnaeus, 1758) (Veneridae), collected near the city of Dammam (6°17'0"N, 50°12'0"E) in the Arabian Gulf off the coast of Saudi Arabia. Oocysts of an ellipsoidal shape were found among myofibrils of the abductor muscles of infected clams. Each oocyst is composed of an oocyst wall surrounding a single uninucleate vermiform sporozoite located in the lumen of the oocyst wall. The thin oocyst wall (0.70-0.85 µm thick) is composed of homogenous electron-lucent material formed by three layers of equal-thickness. The oocyst wall contains a plano-convex opercular-like structure about 2.5 µm in diameter and 0.75-0.90 µm thick, composed of a homogenous material with moderate electron density. The oocyst is of an ellipsoidal shape and is 15.6 ± 0.6 µm long and 11.1 ± 0.7 µm wide. Externally, the oocyst wall is surrounded by a complex dense network of numerous anastomosed microfibrils, which are attached to the oocyst wall, forming 2-3 layers and extending towards the periphery, at some points penetrating amongst the host cells. The myofibrils in some cases show evident aspects of lysis as a consequence of the appearance of lysosome-like vesicles. Lacking knowledge of a complete life cycle and/or molecular data precluded the conclusive identification of this species.

Keywords: Nematopsis, oocyst, ultrastructure, Meretrix, Saudi Arabia

Received: December 31, 2011; Accepted: March 9, 2012; Published: June 1, 2012


References

  1. Azevedo C., Cachola R. 1992: Fine structure of the apicomplexa oocyst of Nematopsis sp. of two marine bivalve molluscs. Dis. Aquat. Org. 14: 69-73 Go to original source...
  2. Azevedo C., Matos E. 1999: Description of Nematopsis mytella n. sp. (Apicomplexa), parasite of the mussel Mytella guyanensis (Mytellidae) from the Amazon estuary and description of its oocysts. Eur. J. Protistol. 35: 427-433 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Azevedo C., Padovan I. 2004: Nematopsis gigas n. sp. (Apicomplexa), a parasite of Nerita ascencionis (Gastropoda, Neritidae) from Brazil. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 51: 214-219 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Belofastova I.P. 1996: Gregarines of the genus Nematopsis (Eugregarinida, Porosporidae) - parasites of the Black Sea invertebrates. Parazitologiya 30: 159-173. (In Russian with English abstract.)
  5. Berrilli F., Ceschia G., De Liberato C., Di Cave D., Orecchia P. 2000: Parasitic infections of Chamelea gallina (Molusca, Bivalvia) from commercially exploited banks of the Adriatic Sea. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 20: 199-205
  6. Bradbury P.C. 1994: Parasitic protozoa of Mollusca and Crustacea. In: J.P. Kreier (Ed.), Parasitic Protozoa. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, California, pp. 170-180
  7. Canestri -Trotti G., Baccarani E.M., Paesanti F., Turolla E. 1998: Nematopsis and Perkinsus infections in Chamelea gallina from Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). Parassitologia 42: 164
  8. Canestri -Trotti G., Baccarani E.M., Paesanti F., Turolla E. 2000: Monitoring of infections by Protozoa of the genera Nematopsis, Perkinsus and Porospora in the smooth Venus clam Callista chione from the North-Western Adriatic Sea (Italy). Dis. Aquat. Org. 42: 157-161 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  9. Carballal M.J., Iglesias D., Santamarina J., Soto F.B., Vil lalba A. 2001: Parasites and pathologic conditions of the cockle Cerastoderma edule populations of the coast of Galicia (NW Spain). J. Inverteb. Pathol. 78: 87-89 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Cheng T.C. 1967: Marine molluscs as hosts for symbiosis with a review of known parasites of commercially important species. Adv. Mar. Biol. 5: 1-424 Go to original source...
  11. Desportes I., Vivares C h .P., Theodorides J. 1977: Interet taxonomique de l'ultrastructure epicytaire chez Ganymedes Huley, Porospora Schneider et Thiriotia n. g., eugregarines parasites de crustaces. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 19: 261-277
  12. Hatt P. 1927: Spores de Porospora (Nematopsis) chez un gasteropode. C. R. Soc. Biol. 96: 90-91
  13. Hatt P. 1931: L'evolution des Porosporides chez les mollusques. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen. 2: 342-415
  14. Jimenez R., de Barniol L., Machuca M. 2002: Nematopsis marinus n. sp., a new septate gregarine from cultured penaeoid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone), in Ecuador. Aquacult. Res. 33: 231-240 Go to original source...
  15. Kim Y., Powell E.N., Wade T.L., Presley B.J., Sericano J. 1998: Parasites of sentinel bivalves in the NOAA Status and Trends Program: distribution and relationship to contaminant body burden. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 37: 45-55 Go to original source...
  16. Kruse D.N. 1966: Life cycle studies on Nematopsis duorari n. sp. (Gregarina; Porosporidae), a parasite of the pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) and pelecypod molluscs. Diss. Abstr. 27 B, 2919-B
  17. Lauckner G. 1983: Diseases of Mollusca: Bivalvia. In: O. Kinne (Ed.), Diseases of Marine Animals. Biologische Anstalt. Helgoland, Hamburg, pp. 542-548
  18. Leger L. 1903: Sporozoaire parasite des moules et autres lamellibranches comestibles. C. R. Acad. Sci. 137: 1003-1006
  19. Lima F.C., Abreu M.G., Mesquita E.F.M. 2001: Histopathological assessment of mussel Perna perna at the Itaipu Lagoon, Brazil. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootecn. 53: 203-206 Go to PubMed...
  20. Padovan I.P., Tavares L.A., Corral L., Padovan P.A., Azeve do C. 2003: Fine structure of the oocyst of Nematopsis mytella (Apicomplexa, Porosporidae), a parasite of the mussel Mytella falcata and of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the northeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. Braz. J. Morphol. Sci. 20: 141-145
  21. Perkins F.O. 1991: "Sporozoa": Apicomplexa, Microsporidia, Haplosporidia, Paramyxea, Myxosporidia, and Actinosporidia. In: F.W. Harrison and J.O. Corliss (Eds.), Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Vol. 1 (Protozoa). Wiley-Liss Inc., New York, pp. 261-331
  22. Pinto T.R., Boehs G. 2008: Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) em Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) da regiao estuarina do Rio Cachoeira, Ilheus, Bahia, Brasil. Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. 45: 95-100
  23. Prytherch H.F. 1938: The life cycle of a sporozoan parasite of the oyster. Science 88: 451-452 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  24. Prytherch H.F. 1940: The life cycle and morphology of Nematopsis ostrearum sp. nov. a gregarine parasite of the mud crab and oyster. J. Morphol. 39: 64-66 Go to original source...
  25. Schneider A. 1892: Signalement d'un nouveau sporozoaire. Tabl. Zool. 2
  26. Soto M., Pascual S., Rodriguez H., Gestal C., Abollo E., Arias C., Estevez J. 1996: Nematopsis spp. Schneider, 1892 (Apicomplexa: Gregarinida) in bivalve molluscs off Ria de Vigo (Galicia, NW Spain). Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 16: 157-160
  27. Sprague V. 1949: Species of Nematopsis in Ostrea virginica. J. Parasitol. 35: 42
  28. Sprague V. 1970: Some protozoan parasites and hyperparasites in marine bivalve molluscs. In: S.F. Snieszko (Ed.), A Symposium on Diseases of Fishes and Shellfishes. Special Publ. No. 5. American Fisheries Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 511-526
  29. Sprague V., Orr P.E. Jr. 1955: Nematopsis ostrearum and N. prytherchi (Eugregarinina: Porosporidae) with special reference to the host-parasite relations. J. Parasitol. 41: 89-104 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  30. Theodorides J. 1962: Gregarines d'invertebres marins de la region de Banyuls. I. Eugregarines parasites de crustaces decapodes. Vie Milieu. 13: 95-122
  31. Tuntiwaranuruk C., Chalermwat K., Pongsakchat V., Mee pool A., Upatham E.S., Kruatrachue M. 2008: Infection of Nematopsis oocysts in different size classes of the farmed mussel Perna viridis in Thailand. Aquaculture 281: 12-16 Go to original source...
  32. Tuntiwaranuruk C., Chalermwat K., Upatham E.S., Kruatrachue M., Azevedo C. 2004: Investigation of Nematopsis spp. oocysts in 7 species of bivalves from Chonburi Province, Gulf of Thailand. Dis. Aquat. Org. 58: 47-53 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...