Folia Parasitologica, vol. 60 (2013), issue 2

Folia Parasitologica 60[2] 149-154 (2013) | 10.14411/fp.2013.016

A parvicapsulid (Myxozoa) infecting Sprattus sprattus and Clupea harengus (Clupeidae) in the Northeast Atlantic uses Hydroides norvegicus (Serpulidae) as invertebrate host

Marianne Køie1, Egil Karlsbakk2,3, Ann-Cathrine Bårdsgjære Einen2, Are Nylund3
1 Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark;
2 Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway;
3 Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Norway

Abstract: A myxosporean producing actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type in Hydroides norvegicus Gunnerus (Serpulidae) in Denmark was identified as a member of the family Parvicapsulidae based on small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. Myxosporean samples from various Danish and Norwegian marine fishes were examined with primers that detect the novel myxosporean. Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus) and Clupea harengus Linnaeus (Teleostei, Clupeidae) were found to be infected. The sequences of this parvicapsulid from these hosts were consistently slightly different (0.8% divergence), but both these genotypes were found in H. norvegicus. Disporic trophozoites and minute spores of a novel myxosporean type were observed in the renal tubules of some of the hosts found infected through PCR. The spores appear most similar to those of species of Gadimyxa Køie, Karlsbakk et Nylund, 2007, but are much smaller. The actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type from H. norvegicus have been described previously. In GenBank, the SSU rDNA sequences of Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. show highest identity (82%) with Parvicapsula minibicornis Kent, Whitaker et Dawe, 1997 infecting salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in fresh water in the western North America. A phylogenetic analysis places P. minibicornis and Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. in a sister clade to the other parvicapsulids (Parvicapsula spp. and Gadimyxa spp.).

Keywords: Myxozoa, Parvicapsulidae, Clupea harengus, Sprattus sprattus, actinospores, life cycle, Denmark, Norway

Received: June 14, 2012; Accepted: November 19, 2012; Published: May 10, 2013


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