Folia Parasitologica, vol. 60 (2013), issue 3

Folia Parasitologica 60[3] 264-272 (2013) | 10.14411/fp.2013.030

Analysis of the accuracy and precision of the McMaster method in detection of the eggs of Toxocara and Trichuris species (Nematoda) in dog faeces

Maciej Kochanowski1, Joanna D±browska1, Jacek Karamon1, Tomasz Cencek1, Zbigniew Osiński2
1 Department of Parasitology and Invasive Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, Pulawy, Poland;
2 Department of Hygiene of Animal Feedingstuffs, National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy, Pulawy, Poland

Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and precision of McMaster method with Raynaud's modification in the detection of the eggs of the nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Trichuris ovis (Abildgaard, 1795) in faeces of dogs. Four variants of McMaster method were used for counting: in one grid, two grids, the whole McMaster chamber and flotation in the tube. One hundred sixty samples were prepared from dog faeces (20 repetitions for each egg quantity) containing 15, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 eggs of T. canis and T. ovis in 1 g of faeces. To compare the influence of kind of faeces on the results, samples of dog faeces were enriched at the same levels with the eggs of another nematode, Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782. In addition, 160 samples of pig faeces were prepared and enriched only with A. suum eggs in the same way. The highest limit of detection (the lowest level of eggs that were detected in at least 50% of repetitions) in all McMaster chamber variants were obtained for T. canis eggs (25-250 eggs/g faeces). In the variant with flotation in the tube, the highest limit of detection was obtained for T. ovis eggs (100 eggs/g). The best results of the limit of detection, sensitivity and the lowest coefficients of variation were obtained with the use of the whole McMaster chamber variant. There was no significant impact of properties of faeces on the obtained results. Multiplication factors for the whole chamber were calculated on the basis of the transformed equation of the regression line, illustrating the relationship between the number of detected eggs and that of the eggs added to the sample. Multiplication factors calculated for T. canis and T. ovis eggs were higher than those expected using McMaster method with Raynaud modification.

Keywords: validation, quantitative coproscopy, diagnostics, carnivores

Received: May 31, 2012; Accepted: February 4, 2013; Published: July 23, 2013


References

  1. Cringoli G., Rinaldi L., Maurelli M.P., Morgoglione M.E., Musella V., Utzinger J. 2011: Ancylostoma caninum: calibration and comparison of diagnostic accuracy of flotation in tube, McMaster and FLOTAC in fecal samples of dogs. Exp. Parasitol. 128: 32-37 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Cringoli G., Rinaldi L., Maurelli M.P., Utzinger J. 2010: FLOTAC: new multivalent techniques for qualitative and quantitative copromicroscopic diagnosis of parasites in animals and humans. Nat. Protoc. 5: 503-515 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Cringoli G., Rinaldi L., Veneziano V., Capelli G., Scala A. 2004: The influence of flotation solution, sample dilution and the choice of McMaster slide area (volume) on the reliability of the McMaster technique in estimating the faecal egg counts of gastrointestinal strongyles and Dicrocoelium dendriticum in sheep. Vet. Parasitol. 123: 121-131 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Das G., Savas T., Kaufmann F., Idris A., Abel H., Gauly M. 2011: Precision repeatability and representative ability of faecal egg counts in Heterakis gallinarum infected chickens. Vet. Parasitol. 183: 87-94 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  5. Fuelleborn F. 1921: Uber die Wanderung von Ascaris und Nematodenlarven im Koerper und intrauterine Ascarisinfektion. Arch. Schiffs- u. Tropenhyg. 25: 146-149
  6. Gordon H., Whitlock H. 1939: A new technique for counting nematode eggs in sheep faeces. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 12: 50-52
  7. ISO/IEC 17025:2005: General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. ISO copyright office, Geneva, Switzerland, 14 pp
  8. ISO 16140:2003: Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs. Protocol for the validation of alternative methods. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 11 pp
  9. Karamon J., Sroka J., Cencek T. 2010: Limit of detection of sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) for Echinococcus multilocularis diagnosis, estimated under experimental conditions. Exp. Parasitol. 124: 244-246 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Karamon J., Ziomko I., Cencek T., Sroka J. 2008: Modified flotation method with the use of Percoll for the detection of Isospora suis oocysts in suckling piglet faeces. Vet. Parasitol. 156: 324-328 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  11. Levecke B., De Wilde N., Vandenhoute E., Vercruysse J. 2009: Field validity and feasibility of four techniques for the detection of Trichuris in simians: a model for monitoring drug efficacy in public health? PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 3: e366 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  12. Lombard B. 2006: Estimation of measurement uncertainty in food microbiology: the ISO approach. Accred. Qual. Assur. 11: 94-100 Go to original source...
  13. MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food) 1986: Manual of Veterinary Parasitological Techniques. HMSO, London, 24 pp
  14. Ojeda-Robertos N.F., Torres-Acosta J.F.J., Ayala-Burgos A., Aguilar-Caballero A.J., Cob-Galera L.A., Mendoza-de-Gives P. 2008: A technique for quantification of Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores in sheep faeces. Vet. Parasitol. 152: 339-343 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  15. Overgaauw P.A.M., van Knapen F. 2008: Toxocarosis, an important zoonosis. Eur. J. Comp. Anim. Pract. 18: 259-266
  16. Pereckiene A., Kaziunaite V., Vysniauskas A., Petkevicius S., Malakaskas A., Sarkunas M., Taylor M.A. 2007: A comparison of modifications of the McMaster method for the enumeration of Ascaris sum eggs in pig faecal samples. Vet. Parasitol. 149: 111-116 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  17. Raynaud J.P. 1970: Etude de l'efficacite d'une technique de coproscopie quantitative pour le diagnostic de routine et le controle des infestations parasitaires des bovins, ovins, equines et porcins. Ann. Parasitol. (Paris) 45: 321-342
  18. Rinaldi L., Coles G., Maurelli M.P., Cringoli G. 2011: Calibration and diagnostic accuracy of simple flotation, McMaster and FLOTAC for parasite egg counts in sheep. Vet. Parasitol. 177: 345-352 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  19. Rossangio C.E., Gruner L. 1990: Accuracy of two methods for counting eggs of sheep nematode parasites. Vet. Parasitol. 39: 115-121 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  20. Turkson P.K., Ahafia K.K. 1994: A comparison of modified McMaster and Brumpt's methods in assessment of nematode egg output in an N'dama cattle herd. Acta Trop. 57: 341-344 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  21. Utzinger J., Laura R., Lohourignon L.K., Rohner F., Zimmermann M.B., Tschannen A.B., N'Goran K.N., Cringoli G. 2008: FLOTAC: a new sensitive technique for the diagnosis of hookworm infections in humans. Trans R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 102: 84-90 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  22. Vadlejch J., Petrtyl M., Zaichenko I., Cadkova Z., Jankovska I., Langrova I., Moravec M. 2011: Which McMaster egg counting technique is the most reliable? Parasitol. Res. 109: 1387-1394 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  23. Ward M.P., Lyndal-Murphy M., Baldock F.C. 1997: Evaluation of a composite method for counting helminth eggs in cattle faeces. Vet. Parasitol. 73: 181-187 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...