Folia Parasitologica 61 371-376 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.036
The effects of condensed tannins (CTs) extracted from pine bark on egg hatching, larval development and the viability of infective L3 larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Giles, 1892) and Teladorsagia circumcincta (Stadelmann, 1894) (syn. Ostertagia circumcincta) were evaluated using in vitro bioassays. Significant inhibitory effects of CTs were obtained on the viability of the infective larvae, egg hatching and larval development of both nematodes. In all bioassays, the larval stages of Te. circumcincta were significantly (P < 0.05) more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of CT than those of Tr. colubriformis. At 1 000 µg/ml, CTs from pine bark inhibited 48% and 69% of the infective larvae of Tr. colubriformis and Te. circumcincta, respectively, from passing through the sieve relative to the control incubations (no CT added; P < 0.0001). At the same concentration, CTs were able to inhibit 36% and 47% of the eggs of the two parasites, respectively, from hatching relative to the control incubations without CTs. Moreover, at 150 µg/ml, the CTs were able to inhibit 88% and 95% (P < 0.0001 relative to control incubation) of L1 larvae of the two nematodes, respectively, from attaining the full development to L3 larvae in comparison with the control incubations without CTs. At 200 µg/ml, CTs were able to inhibit completely the larval development in both nematodes. Addition of 2 µg polyethylene glycol (PEG; tannin inhibitor) per µg CT eliminated up to 87% of the CT activity (P < 0.0001) compared to incubations without PEG. In conclusion, this study shows that CTs are able to disrupt the life cycle of nematodes and their effects varied according to the parasite species and stage.
Received: October 8, 2013; Accepted: February 23, 2014; Prepublished online: April 7, 2014; Published: August 6, 2014