Folia Parasitologica, vol. 61 (2014), issue 4

Folia Parasitologica 61[4] 377-384 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.044

Genetic and morphological evidence reveals the existence of a new family, genus and species of Echinorhynchida (Acanthocephala)

Paola E. Braicovich1, Ana L. Lanfranchi1, Marisa D. Farber2, Adriana E. Marvaldi3, José L. Luque4, Juan T. Timi1
1 Laboratorio de Parasitología, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (IIMyC), FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata-CONICET, Mar del Plata, Argentina;
2 Instituto de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Hurlingham, Buenos Aires, Argentina;
3 Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de Zonas Aridas (IADIZA), CCT-CONICET Mendoza, Mendoza, Argentina;
4 Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brazil This article contains supporting information (S1, S2). S1 - Nexus file (saved in Word as Text Only) with the combined aligned data, file name: NEX_str18S&28S_cox1_11feb2014.txt, online at http://folia.paru.cas.cz/suppl/2014-4-377b.txt; S2 - Colour Word file with the annotated structure alignment of SSU sequences of 27 acanthocephalan species, file name: Acan_18S_str_align_AEM2014.doc; online at http://folia.paru.cas.cz/suppl/2014-4-377a.doc

Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n. is proposed to accommodate its type species, G. decapteri sp. n., a parasite of the marine fish Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier), caught from the coastal waters of Brazil. Gymnorhadinorhynchus decapteri sp. n. was morphologically most similar to species of two echinorhynchid families, the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae, particularly in the structure of the proboscis and the absence of somatic spines, respectively. This combination of morphological features made it difficult to assign our specimen to an extant family of the Acanthocephala. Therefore, in order to clarify the systematic placement of G. decapteri, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the SSU and LSU rDNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences obtained for the new taxon and other 26 acanthocephalan species. The results of parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses, using individual, combined and concatenated sequence data, consistently indicate that the specimens do not belong to any known family of the Echinorhynchida. Rather, G. decapteri represents a distinct lineage that is closely related to the Transvenidae, but distantly related to both the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae. Gymnorhadinorhynchidae fam. n. is therefore erected. This newly described family can be distinguished from other families of Echinorhynchida by the combination of the following morphological characters: a proboscis cylindrical with 10 rows of 22-26 hooks, dorsoventral differences in proboscis hooks, basal hooks forming a ring and being abruptly larger than anterior hooks, absence of trunk spines and presence of four tubular cement glands. This combination, in addition to several molecular autapomorphies, justifies the erection of a new genus, Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n., in order to accommodate this new species.

Keywords: Rhadinorhynchidae, Cavisomidae, Gymnorhadinorhynchidae fam. n., Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n., marine fish

Received: October 3, 2013; Accepted: March 21, 2014; Prepublished online: May 19, 2014; Published: August 6, 2014


Attachments:

Download file2014-4-377a.doc

File size: 423 kB

Download file2014-4-377b.txt

File size: 213.86 kB

References

  1. Amin O.M. 1987: Key to the families and subfamilies of Acanthocephala with the erection of a new class (Polyacanthocephala) and a new order (Polyacanthorhynchida). J. Parasitol. 73: 1216-1219 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Amin O.M. 2013: Classification of the Acanthocephala. Folia Parasitol. 60: 273-305 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Amin O.M., Nahhas F.M. 1994: Acanthocephala of marine fishes off Fiji Islands, with descriptions of Filisoma longcementglandatus n. sp., Neorhadinorhynchus macrospinosus n. sp. (Cavisomidae) and gravid females of Rhadinorhynchus johnstoni (Rhadinorhynchidae); and keys to species of the genera Filisoma and Neorhadinorhynchus. J. Parasitol. 80: 768-774 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Edgar R.C. 2004: MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucl. Acids Res. 32: 1792-1797 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  5. Folmer O., Black M., Hoeh W., Lutz R., Vrijenhoek R. 1994: DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotech. 3: 294-299
  6. Garcia-Varela M., Cummings M.P., Perez-Ponce de Leon G., Gardner S.L., Laclettea J.P. 2002: Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences supports the existence of class Polyacanthocephala (Acanthocephala). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 23: 288-292 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  7. Garcia-Varela M., Gonzalez-Oliver A. 2008: The systematic position of Leptorhynchoides (Kostylew, 1924) and Pseudoleptorhynchoides (Salgado-Maldonado, 1976), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. J Parasitol. 94: 959-962 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  8. Garcia-Varela M., Nadler S.A. 2005: Phylogenetic relationships of Palaecanthocephala (Acanthocephala) inferred from SSU and LSU rDNA gene sequences. J. Parasitol. 91: 1401-1409 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  9. Garcia-Varela M., Perez-Ponce de Leon G., Aznar F.J., Nadler S.A. 2013: Phylogenetic relationship among genera of Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala), inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 68: 176-84 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Gillespie J.J., Johnston J.S., Cannone J.J., Gutell R.R. 2006: Characteristics of nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements. Insect Mol. Biol. 15: 657-686 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  11. Goloboff P.A., Farris J.S., Nixon K.C. 2008: TNT, a free program for phylogenetic analysis. Cladistics 24: 774-786 Go to original source...
  12. Guindon S., Gascuel O. 2003: A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst. Biol. 52: 696-704 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  13. Kjer K.M., Roshan U., Gillespie J.J. 2009: Structural and evolutionary considerations for multiple sequence alignment of RNA, and the challenges for algorithms that ignore them. In: M.S. Rosenberg (Ed.), Sequence Alignment: Methods, Models, Concepts, and Strategies. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, pp. 105-149
  14. Mallatt J., Craig C.W., Yoder M.J. 2012: Nearly complete rRNA genes from 371 Animalia: updated structure-based alignment and detailed phylogenetic analysis. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64: 603-617 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  15. Marvaldi A.E., Duckett C.N., Kjer K.M., Gillespie J. 2009: Structural alignment of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences provides insights into phylogeny of Phytophaga (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea and Chrysomeloidea). Zool. Scri. 38: 63-77 Go to original source...
  16. Monks S. 2001: Phylogeny of the Acanthocephala based on morphological characters. Syst. Parasitol. 48: 81-116 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  17. Pichelin S., Cribb T.H. 2001: The status of the Diplosentidae (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) and a new family of acanthocephalans from Australian wrasses (Pisces: Labridae). Folia Parasitol. 48: 289-303 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  18. Pichelin S., Smales L.R., Bray R.A. 2002: A discussion on the Heteracanthocephalidae Petrochenko, 1956 (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala). Syst. Parasitol. 52: 145-152 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  19. Smales L.R. 2012: A new acanthocephalan family, the Isthmosacanthidae (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchida), with the description of Isthmosacanthus fitzroyensis n. g., n. sp. from threadfin fishes (Polynemidae) of northern Australia. Syst. Parasitol. 82: 105-111 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  20. Swofford D.L. 1999: 'PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using parsimony (* and other methods), ver. 4.0'. Sinauer: Sunderland, MA, USA Go to PubMed...
  21. Verweyen L., Klimpel S., Palm H.W. 2011: Molecular phylogeny of the Acanthocephala (class Palaeacanthocephala) with a paraphyletic assemblage of the orders Polymorphida and Echinorhynchida. PLoS ONE 6: e28285 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...