Folia Parasitologica, vol. 62 (2015)

Folia Parasitologica 62:025 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.025

An additional genus and two additional species of Forticulcitinae (Digenea: Haploporidae)

Michael J. Andres1, Stephen S. Curran1, Thomas J. Fayton1, Eric E. Pulis2, Robin M. Overstreet1
1 Department of Coastal Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA;
2 The Institute for Marine Mammal Studies, Gulfport, Mississippi, USA

Forticulcita platana sp. n. and Forticulcita apiensis sp. n. are described from Mugil liza Valenciennes in Argentina, and from Mugil cephalus Linnaeus in Salt Springs, Florida, USA, respectively. Supplemental material relating to the hermaphroditic sac of Forticulcita gibsoni Blasco-Costa, Montero, Balbuena, Raga et Kostadinova, 2009 is provided from a specimen isolated from M. cephalus off Crete, Greece. Forticulcita platana can be distinguished from all species of Forticulcita Overstreet, 1982 except F. gibsoni, based on possessing small pads or gland cells along the hermaphroditic duct. It can be differentiated from that species in possessing a hermaphroditic sac that is one and a half to two times longer than wide rather than one that is approximately three times longer than wide, longer eggs (44-52 μm rather than 34-44 μm long) and a shorter post-testicular space (< 45% of the body length). Forticulcita apiensis can be differentiated from the other species of Forticulcita in possessing a testis that is shorter than or equal to the pharynx rather than one that is longer than the pharynx. Xiha gen. n. is erected for Dicrogaster fastigatus Thatcher et Sparks, 1958 as Xiha fastigata (Thatcher et Sparks, 1958) comb. n., and we tentatively consider Dicrogaster fragilis Fernández Bargiela, 1987 to be Xiha fragilis (Fernández Bargiela, 1987) comb. n. The new genus fits within the concept of Forticulcitinae Blasco-Costa, Balbuena, Kostadinova et Olson, 2009 in having a vitellarium comprised of a single elongate to subspherical mass. Xiha can be differentiated from Forticulcita in having spines lining the hermaphroditic duct, or intromittent organ. A Bayesian inference analysis of partial 28S rDNA sequences of the two New World species of Forticulcita, Xiha fastigata and previously published haploporids places Xiha fastigata within the Forticulcitinae and sister to Forticulcita. Amended diagnoses for the subfamily and for Dicrogaster Looss, 1902 are provided.

Keywords: 28S rDNA, Dicrogaster, Digenea, Haploporinae, molecular phylogeny, mullet, Mugil, Mugilidae

Received: October 16, 2014; Accepted: February 1, 2015; Published online: May 14, 2015


References

  1. Besprozvannykh V.V., Atopkin D.M., Ermolenko A.V., Nikitenko A. 2015: Restoration of the genus Parasaccocoelium Zhukov, 1971 (Digenea: Haploporidae) and a description of two new species from mugilid fish in the Far East of Russia. J. Helminthology: (In press). Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  2. Blasco-Costa I., Balbuena J.A., Kostadinova A., Olson P.D. 2009b: Interrelationships of the Haploporinae (Digenea: Haploporidae): a molecular test of the taxonomic framework based on morphology. Parasitol. Int. 58: 263-269. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Blasco-Costa I., Balbuena J.A., Raga J.A., Kostadinova A., Olson P.D. 2010: Molecules and morphology reveal cryptic variation among digeneans infecting sympatric mullets in the Mediterranean. Parasitology 137: 287-302. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  4. Blasco-Costa I., Montero F.E., Balbuena J.A., Raga J.A., Kostadinova A. 2009a: A revision of the Haploporinae Nicoll, 1914 (Digenea: Haploporidae) from mullets (Mugilidae): Dicrogaster Looss, 1902 and Forticulcita Overstreet, 1982. Syst. Parasitol. 72: 187-206. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  5. Blasco-Costa I., Montero F.E., Gibson D.I., Balbuena J.A., Kostadinova A. 2009c: A revision of the Haploporinae Nicoll, 1914 (Digenea: Haploporidae) from mullets (Mugilidae): two new haploporine genera and a key to the genera of the subfamily. Syst. Parasitol. 72: 207-215. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  6. Bray R.A., Cribb T.H., Waeschenbach A., Littlewood D.T.J. 2014: Molecular evidence that the genus Cadenatella Dollfus, 1946 (Digenea; Plagiorchiida) belongs in the superfamily Haploporoidea Nicoll, 1914. Syst. Parasitol. 89: 15-21. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  7. Bray R.A., Waeschenbach A., Cribb T.H., Weedall G.D., Dyal P., Littlewood D.T.J. 2009: The phylogeny of the Lepocreadiidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial genes: implications for their systematics and evolution. Acta Parasitol. 54: 310-329. Go to original source...
  8. Cribb T.H., Bray R.A. 2010: Gut wash, body soak, blender and heat-fixation: approaches to effective collection, fixation and preservation of trematodes of fishes. Syst. Parasitol. 76: 1-7. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  9. Curran S.S., Tkach V.V., Overstreet R.M. 2006: A review of Polylekithum Arnold, 1934 and its familial affinities using morphological and molecular data, with description of Polylekithum catahoulensis sp. nov. Acta Parasitol. 51: 238-248. Go to original source...
  10. Fernández Bargiela J. 1987: Los parasitos de la lisa Mugil cephalus L., en Chile: sistematica y aspectos poblacionales (Perciformes: Mugilidae). Gayana Zool. 51: 3-58.
  11. Darriba D., Taboada G.L., Doallo R., Posada D. 2012: jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nat. Methods 9: 772. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  12. Guindon S., Gascuel O. 2003: A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst. Biol. 52: 696-704. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  13. Hall T.A. 1999: BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl. Acids Res. 41: 95-98.
  14. Hassanine R.M.El.-S. 2007: Trematodes from Red Sea fishes: Prosteganoderma brayi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Zoogonidae Odhner, 1902) and Forticulcita mugilis sp. nov. (Haploporidae Nicoll, 1914). Helminthologia 44: 183-187. Go to original source...
  15. Huelsenbeck J.P., Ronquist F. 2001: MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Bioinformatics 17: 754-755. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  16. Huelsenbeck J.P., Ronquist F., Nielsen R., Bollback J.P. 2001: Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology. Science 294: 2310-2314. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  17. Katoh K., Kuma K.-I., Toh H., Miyata T. 2005: MAFFT version 5: improvement in accuracy of multiple sequence alignment. Nucl. Acids Res. 33: 511-518. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  18. Knoff M., Luque J.L., Amato J.F.R. 1997: Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of grey mullets, Mugil platanus (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from the littoral of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev. Bras. Biol. 57: 441-454.
  19. Nordlie F.G. 1990: Rivers and springs. In: R.L. Myers and J.J. Ewel (Eds.), Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando, FL, pp. 392-426.
  20. Odum H.T. 1953: Factors controlling marine invasion into Florida fresh waters. Bull. Mar. Sci. 3: 134-156.
  21. Olson P.D., Cribb T.H., Tkach V.V., Bray R.A., Littlewood D.T.J. 2003: Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). Int. J. Parasitol. 33: 733-755. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  22. Overstreet R.M. 1971: Some adult digenetic trematodes in striped mullet from the northern Gulf of Mexico. J. Parasitol. 57: 967-974. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  23. Overstreet R.M. 1982: Forticulcita glabra gen. et sp. n. (Digenea, Haploporidae) in a Red Sea mullet. Zool. Scr. 11: 83-85. Go to original source...
  24. Overstreet R.M., Curran S.S. 2005: Family Haploporidae Nicoll, 1914. In: A. Jones, R.A. Bray and D.I. Gibson (Eds.), Keys to the Trematoda. Volume 2. CABI Publishing and the Natural History Museum, London, pp. 129-165.
  25. Pérez-Ponce de León G., Nadler S.A. 2010: What we don't recognize can hurt us: a plea for awareness about cryptic species. J. Parasitol. 96: 453-464. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  26. Poulin R. 2011: Uneven distribution of cryptic diversity among higher taxa of parasitic worms. Biol. Let. 7: 241-244. Go to original source...
  27. Pulis E.E., Fayton T.J., Curran S.S., Overstreet R.M. 2013: A new species of Intromugil (Digenea: Haploporidae) and redescription of Intromugil mugilicolus. J. Parasitol. 99: 501-508. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  28. Pulis E.E., Overstreet R.M. 2013: Review of haploporid (Trematoda) genera with ornate muscularisation in the region of the oral sucker, including four new species and a new genus. Syst. Parasitol. 84: 167-191. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  29. Scott T.M., Means G.H., Meegan R.P., Means R.C., Upchurch S.B., Copeland R.E., Jones J., Roberts T., Willet A. 2004: Springs of Florida. Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 66, pp. 237-239.
  30. Smock L.A., Wright A.B., Benke A.C. 2005: Atlantic coast rivers of the Southeastern United States. In: A.C. Benke and C.E. Cushing (Eds.), Rivers of North America. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington, MA, pp. 73-124.
  31. St. Johns River Water Management District 2013: 2012 Water Quality Status and Trends. http://floridaswater.com/hydrologicdata/waterquality/pdfs/specificconductance_map.pdf 10/14.
  32. Thiel M., Haye P.A. 2006: The ecology of rafting in the marine environment. III. Biogeographical and evolutionary consequences. In: R.N. Gibson, R.J.A. Atkinson, and J.D.M. Gordon (Eds.), Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. Volume 44. CRC Press, London, pp. 323-429.
  33. Tkach V.V., Littlewood D.T.J., Olson P.D., Kinsella J.N., Swiderski Z. 2003: Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Microphalloidea Ward, 1901 (Trematoda: Digenea). Syst. Parasitol. 56: 1-15. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  34. Walsh S.J. 2001: Freshwater macrofauna of Florida karst habitats. In: E. Kuniansky (Ed.) U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, St. Petersburg, Florida. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4011, pp. 78-88.
  35. Yamaguti S. 1958: Systema Helminthum. The Digenetic Trematodes of Vertebrates. Parts I and II. Interscience Publishers, New York, 979 + 1575 pp.
  36. Wu M., Chatterji S., Eisen J.A. 2012: Accounting for alignment uncertainty in phylogenomics. PLOS ONE 7: e30288. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...