Folia Parasitologica, vol. 62 (2015)

Folia Parasitologica 62:054 (2015) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2015.054

The discovery of male Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on tub gurnard, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus) from the eastern Mediterranean

İbrahim Demirkale1, Argun Akif Özak1,2, Geoffrey Allan Boxshall2
1 Department of Fish Diseases & Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries, University of Cukurova, Adana, Turkey;
2 Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, UK

Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901, a common but poorly known species of parasitic copepod, is redescribed from newly collected specimens of both sexes. The new material was collected from the body surface of tub gurnards, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus), caught in eastern Mediterranean waters off the Turkish coast. Inadequately described female structures from earlier descriptions are redescribed and illustrated in detail and the male of C. brevicaudatus is described for the first time. The new material of C. brevicaudatus is compared with material collected by A. Scott and stored in the collections of the Natural History Museum, London. In addition, a voucher specimen of Caligus uranoscopi Vaissière, 1955, stored in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris is re-examined. Caligus uranoscopi is recognised as a junior subjective synonym of C. brevicaudatus since it does not differ in any substantive characters.

Keywords: Crustacea, ectoparasite, marine fish, Mediterranean Sea, redescription

Received: June 16, 2015; Accepted: July 30, 2015; Published online: September 17, 2015


  1. Barnard K.H. 1955: Additions to the fauna-list of South African Crustacea and Pycnogonida. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 43: 1‒107.
  2. Benkirane O., Coste F., Raibaut A. 1999: On the morphological variability of the attachment organ of Lernaeopodidae (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida). Folia Parasitol. 46: 67-75.
  3. Benmansour B., Ben Hassine O.K. 1998: Preliminary analysis of parasitic copepod species richness among coastal fishes of Tunisia. Monitore Zool. Ital. Suppl. 65: 341-344. Go to original source...
  4. Boxshall G.A. 1974: Infections with parasitic copepods in North Sea marine fishes. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 54: 355‒372. Go to original source...
  5. Boxshall G.A. 1990: The skeletomusculature of siphonostomatoid copepods, with an analysis of adaptive radiation in structure of the oral cone. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 328: 167-212. Go to original source...
  6. Choi H.S., Hong S.Y., Lee J.M. 1995: Two species of Caligus (Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda) parasitic on marine cultured fishes from Kamak Bay in Korea. Bull. Natl. Fish. Res. Dev. Inst. (Korea) 49: 157‒165.
  7. Cressey R.F., Cressey H.B. 1980: Parasitic copepods of mackerel- and tuna-like fishes (Scombridae) of the world. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 311: 1-186. Go to original source...
  8. Dippenaar S.M. 2005: Reported siphonostomatoid copepods parasitic on marine fishes of southern Africa. Crustaceana 77: 1281‒1328. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  9. Dulčić J., Grubiąić L., Katavić I., Skakelja N. 2001: Embryonic and larval development of the tub gurnard Trigla lucerna (Pisces: Triglidae). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 81: 313‒316. Go to original source...
  10. Froese R., Pauly D. (Eds.) 2015: FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication,, 01/2015.
  11. Hamond R. 1969: The copepods parasitic on Norfolk marine fishes. Trans. Norfolk Norwich Nat. Soc. 21: 229‒243.
  12. Hayes P., Justine, J.-L., Boxshall G.A. 2012: The genus Caligus Müller, 1795 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida): two new species from reef associated fishes in New Caledonia, and some nomenclatural problems resolved. Zootaxa 3534: 21‒39.
  13. Heegaard P. 1943: Parasitic copepods mainly from tropical and Antarctic Seas. Ark. Zool. 34A: 1-37.
  14. Heller C. 1865: Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857-58-59 unter den Befehlen des Commodors B. von Wuellerstorf-Urbair. Zool. Theil, Band 2, Abtheilung 3, Crustaceen, Vienna, 280 pp.
  15. Herrera-Cubilla A., Raibaut A. 1990: Acanthochondria triglae n. sp., copépode parasite des fosses nassales de poissons Triglidae. Crustaceana 59: 82-88. Go to original source...
  16. Ho J.S. 1970: Revision of the genera of the Chondracanthidae, a copepod family parasitic on marine fishes. Beaufortia 17: 105-218.
  17. Ho J.S., Lin C.L. 2004: Sea Lice of Taiwan (Coepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae). The Sueichan Press, Keelung, Taiwan, 388 pp.
  18. Hureau J.C. 1986: Triglidae. In: P.J.P. Whitehead, M.L. Bauchot, J.C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (Eds.), Fishes of the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Vol. 2. UNESCO, Paris, pp. 1230-1238.
  19. Huys R., Boxshall G.A. 1991: Copepod Evolution. The Ray Society, London, 468 pp.
  20. Kabata Z. 1979: Parasitic Copepoda of British Fishes. The Ray Society, London, 468 pp.
  21. Kabata Z. 2003: Copepods Parasitic on Fishes. Second revised edition. Synopses of the British Fauna No. 47. Backhuys, Oegstgeest-Leiden, No. 47: 1-274.
  22. Krøyer H. 1863: Contribution to the knowledge of parasitic copepods. Naturh. Tidsskr. 2: 75-426 + Pls. 1-18.
  23. Markewitsch A.P. 1956: Parasitic Copepodes [sic] on the Fishes of the USSR. Ind. Natl. Sci. Doc. Centre, New Delhi, 445 pp.
  24. Marques J.F., Santos M.J., Cabral H.N. 2006: Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host parasite associations. Mar. Biol. 150: 285‒298. Go to original source...
  25. Marques J.F., Santos M.J., Cabral H.N. 2009: Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) parasites in the northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area. Sci. Mar. 73: 461‒471. Go to original source...
  26. Melotti P., Barbaro A., Roncarati A., Mordenti O., Gennari L. 2000: Definition of induced reproduction techniques of Trigla lucerna L., a Mediterranean species of interest to aquaculture. In: G. Enne and G.F. Greppi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33th International Symposium on New Species for Mediterranean Aquaculture, Alghero, April 1998, Elsevier, Paris, pp. 61-71.
  27. Öktener A., Trilles J.P. 2004: Three new parasitic copepod species for the parasite fauna of marine fish of Turkey. J. Black Sea/Medit. Environ. 10: 71-80.
  28. Oldewage W.H. 1993: Occurrence and distribution of copepod fish parasites on the west coast of South Africa. J. Afr. Zool. 107: 413-418.
  29. Oldewage W.H., Avenant-Oldewage A. 1993. Checklist of the parasitic cCopepoda (Crustacea) of African fishes. Ann. Mus. Roy. Afr. Centr. Doc. Zool. (Tervuren, Belgium) 23: 1-26.
  30. Oldewage W.H., Van As J.G. 1989: Occurrence and distribution of Caligus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) in African coastal waters. Rev. Zool. Afr. 103: 91-98.
  31. von Oorde de Lint G.M., Schuurmans Stekhoven J.H. 1936: Copepoda parasitica. Tierw. Nord Ostsee, Leipzig 31: 73‒197.
  32. Özak A.A., Demirkale İ., Boxshall G.A., Etyemez M. 2013: Parasitic Copepods of the common sole, Solea solea (L.), from the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Syst. Parasitol. 86: 173‒185. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  33. Palm H.W., Klimpel S., Bucher C. 1999: Checklist of Metazoan Fish Parasites of German Coastal Waters. Ber. Inst. Meereskd. Christian-Albrechts-Univ. Kiel, 307, 148 pp.
  34. Radujkovic B.M., Raibaut A. 1987: Copépodes parasites des poissons des côtes du Monténégro (Adriatique sud). Première série. Acta Adriat. 28: 121‒142.
  35. Radujkovic B.M., Raibaut A. 1989: Parasites des poissons marins du Monténégro: copépodes. Acta Adriat. 30: 237‒278.
  36. Raibaut A., Combes C., Benoit F. 1998: Analysis of the parasitic copepod species richness among Mediterranean fish. J. Mar. Syst. 15: 185-206. Go to original source...
  37. Ramdane Z., Trilles J.P., Ho J.S. 2010: Caligus uranoscopi Vaissière, 1955 (Copepoda, Caligidae), a rare parasitic copepod from Algeria. Acta Parasitol. 55: 379‒385. Go to original source...
  38. Reichenbach-Klinke H.H. 1956: Vorlaufige Mitteilung über die Parasiten der Fisch des Golfes von Neapel. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 30: 115‒126.
  39. Rohde K. 1980: Comparative studies on microhabitat utilization by ectoparasites of some marine fishes from the North Sea and Papua New Guinea. Zool. Anz. 204: 27‒63.
  40. Roncarati A., DʼAndrea M., Pilla F., Felici A., Melotti P. 2013: Tub gurnard Chelidonichthys lucerna L.: a new fish species suitable for farming? First answers evaluating the growth of juveniles reared at different stocking densities, welfare and fillet quality. Aquacult. Res. 44: 1140‒1151. Go to original source...
  41. Scott A. 1901: Some additions to the fauna of Liverpool Bay, collected May 1st, 1900, to April 30th, 1901. Proc. Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc. 15: 342‒353.
  42. Scott A. 1929: The copepod parasites of Irish Sea fishes. Proc. Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc. 43: 81‒119 + Pls.1‒3.
  43. Scott T., Scott A. 1913: The British Parasitic Copepoda. Volumes I and II. The Ray Society, London, 252 pp.
  44. Vaissière R. 1955: Description d'un nouveau copepode parasite: Caligus uranoscopi. Bull. Stn. Aquic. Pèche Castiglione, Nouvelle Série 7: 283-288.