Folia Parasitologica, vol. 63 (2016)

Folia Parasitologica 63:027 (2016) | 10.14411/fp.2016.027

Application of compound mixture of caprylic acid, iron and mannan oligosaccharide against Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea) in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata

George Rigos1, Ivona Mladineo2, Chrysa Nikoloudaki1, Anamarija Vrbatovic2, Dimitra Kogiannou1
1 Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology & Aquaculture, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Aghios Kosmas, Hellinikon, Athens, Greece;
2 Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, Croatia This article contains supporting information (Tables S1, S2) online at http://folia.paru.cas.cz/suppl/2016-63-027.pdf

We have evaluated the therapeutic effect of a compound mixture of caprylic acid (200 mg/kg fish), organic iron (0.2% of diet) and mannan oligosaccharide (0.4% of diet) in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, infected with Sparicotyle chrysophrii Beneden et Hesse, 1863 in controlled conditions. One hundred and ten reared and S. chrysophrii-free fish (197 g) located in a cement tank were infected by the parasite two weeks following the addition of 150 S. chrysophrii-infected fish (70 g). Growth parameters and gill parasitic load were measured in treated against control fish after a ten-week-period. Differences in final weight, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and feed efficiency were not statistically significant between the experimental groups, suggesting no evident effect with respect to fish growth during the study period. Although the prevalence of S. chrysophrii was not affected by the mixture at the end of the experiment, the number of adults and larvae was significantly lower. The mean intensity encompassing the number of adults and larvae was 8.1 in treated vs 17.7 in control fish. Individual comparisons of gill arches showed that the preferred parasitism site for S. chrysophrii it the outermost or fourth gill arch, consistently apparent in fish fed the modified diet and in control fish. In conclusion, the combined application of caprylic acid, organic iron and mannan oligosaccharide can significantly affect the evolution of infection with S. chrysophrii in gilthead sea bream, being capable of reducing adult and larval stages of the monogenean. However, no difference in growth improvement was observed after the trial period, potentially leaving space for further optimisation of the added dietary compounds.

Received: March 29, 2016; Accepted: June 7, 2016; Published online: August 5, 2016


Attachments:

Download fileFP_63_027_Suppl.pdf

File size: 579.16 kB

References

  1. Agius C., Agbede S.A. 1984: An electron microscopical study on the genesis of lipofuscin, melanin and haemosiderin in the haemopoietic tissues of fish. J. Fish Biol. 24: 471-488. Go to original source...
  2. Agius C., Roberts R.J. 1981: Effects of starvation on the melano-macrophage centres of fish. J. Fish Biol. 19: 161-169. Go to original source...
  3. Alvarez-Pellitero P. 2004: Report about fish parasitic diseases. In: P. Alvarez-Pellitero, J.L. Barja, B. Basurco, F. Berthe and A.E. Toranzo (Eds.), Mediterranean Aquaculture Diagnostic Laboratories Zaragoza, CIHEAM, Options Méditerranéennes, no. 49, Série B., pp. 103-130.
  4. Antonello J., Massault C., Franch R., Haley C., Pellizzari C., Bovo G., Patarnello T., de Koning D.-J., Bargelloni L. 2009: Estimates of heritability and genetic correlation for body length and resistance to fish pasteurellosis in the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Aquaculture 298: 29-35. Go to original source...
  5. Antonelli L., Quilichini Y., Marchand B. 2010: Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Van Beneden and Hesse 1863) (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea) parasite of cultured Gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata (Linnaeus 1758) (Pisces: Teleostei) from Corsica: ecological and morphological study. Parasitol. Res. 107: 389-398. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  6. Bergsson G., Arnfinnsson J., Karlsson S.M., Steingrímsson O., Thormar H. 1998: In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 2290-2294. Go to PubMed...
  7. Bliss C.I., Fisher R.A. 1953: Fitting the negative binomial distribution to biological data. Biometrics 9: 176-200.20014 Go to original source...
  8. Bush A.O., Lafferty K.D., Lotz J.M., Shostak A.W. 1997: Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. J. Parasitol. 83: 575-583. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  9. Crafford D., Luus-Powell W., Avenant-Oldewage A. 2014: Monogenean parasites from fishes of the Vaal Dam, Gauteng Province, South Africa II. New locality records. Acta Parasitol. 59: 485-492. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Cruz E., Silva M.P., Freitas M.S., Orge M.L. 1997: Co-infection by monogenetic trematodes of the genus Microcotyle, Beneden & Hesse, 1863, Lamellodiscus ignoratus Palombi, 1943, the protozoan Trichodina sp. Ehrenberg, 1838 and the presence of epitheliocystis, Vibrio alginolyticus and V. vulnificus in cultured seabream (Sparus aurata L.) in Portugal. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 17: 40-42.
  11. De Vico G., Cataldi M., Carella F., Marino F., Passantino A. 2008: Histological, histochemical and morphometric changes of splenic melanomacrophage centers (Smmcs) in Sparicotyle-infected cultured sea breams (Sparus aurata). Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 30: 27-35. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  12. Euzet L., Combes C. 1998: The selection of habitats among the monogenea. Int. J. Parasitol. 28: 1645-1652. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  13. Faisal M., Iman E.A. 1990: Microcotyle chrysophrii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea), a pathogen of cultured and wild gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. In: F.O. Perkins and T.C. Cheng (Eds.), Pathology in Marine Science. Academic Press, San Diego CA, pp. 283-290.
  14. Fountoulaki E., Vasilaki A., Hurtado R., Grigorakis K., Karacostas I., Nengas I., Rigos G., Kotzamanis Y., Venou B., Alexis M.N. 2009: Fish oil substitution by vegetable oils in commercial diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.); effects on growth performance, flesh quality, fillet fatty acid profile. Recovery of fatty acid profiles by a fish oil finishing diet under fluctuating water temperatures. Aquaculture 289: 317-326. Go to original source...
  15. Gutiérrez P., Martorelli S. 1999: Hemibranch preference by freshwater monogeneans a function of gill area, water current, or both? Folia Parasitol. 46: 263-266. Go to PubMed...
  16. Henry M.A., Nikoloudaki C., Tsigenopoulos C., Rigos G. 2015: Strong effect of long-term Sparicotyle chrysophrii infection on the cellular and innate immune responses of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 51: 185-193. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  17. Hirazawa N., Ohtaka T., Hata K. 2000: Challenge trials on the anthelmintic effect of drugs and natural agents against the monogenean Heterobothrium okamotoi in the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes. Aquaculture 188: 1-13. Go to original source...
  18. Hirazawa N., Oshima S., Mitsuboshi T., Hata K. 2001: The anthelmintic effect of medium-chain fatty acids against the monogenean Heterobothrium okamotoi in the tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes: evaluation of doses of caprylic acid at different water temperatures. Aquaculture 195: 211-223. Go to original source...
  19. Kato N., Shibasaki I. 1976: Combined effect of citric and polyphosphoric acids on the antibacterial activity of monoglycerides. J. Antibact. Antif. Agents 4: 254-261.
  20. Mahmoud N.E., Mahmoud A.M., Fahmy M.M. 2014: Parasitological and comparative pathological studies on monogenean infestation of cultured sea bream (Sparus aurata, Spariidae) in Egypt. Oceanography 2: 129.
  21. Martins M.L., Sá A.R.S., Jerônimo G.T., Tancredo K.R., Gonҫalves E.L.T., Bampi D., Speck G.M., Sandin A.M. 2014: Microhabitat preference and seasonality of gill monogeneans in Nile tilapia reared in southern Brazil. Neotrop. Helminthol. 8: 47-58.
  22. Nowak B.F. 2007: Parasitic diseases in marine cage culture - an example of experimental evolution of parasites? Int. J Parasitol. 37: 581-588. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  23. Oliva M.E., Luque J.L. 1998: Distribution patterns of Microcotyle nemadactylus (Monogenea) on gill filaments of Cheilodactylus variegatus (Teleostei). Mem. Instit. Oswaldo Cruz 93: 477-478. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  24. Poulin R. 1993: The disparity between observed and uniform distributions: a new look at parasite aggregation. Int. J. Parasitol. 23: 937-944. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  25. Radujković B.M., ©undić D. 2014: Parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda) of fishes from the Adriatic Sea. Nat. Monten. Podg. 13: 7-280.
  26. Reiczigel J., Rózsa L. 2005: Quantitative parasitology 3.0 Secondary Quantitative parasitology 3.0. http://www.zoologia.hu/qp/qp.html.
  27. Repullés-Albelda A., Holzer A.S., Raga J.A., Montero F.E. 2012: Oncomiracidial development, survival and swimming behaviour of the monogenean Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Van Beneden and Hesse, 1863). Aquaculture 338-341: 47-55. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  28. Reversat J., Silan P., Maillard C. 1992: Structure of monogenean populations, ectoparasites of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. Mar. Biol. 112: 43-47. Go to original source...
  29. Rigos G., Fountoulaki E., Cotou E., Dotsika E., Dourala N., Karacostas I. 2013: Tissue distribution and field evaluation of caprylic acid against natural infections of Sparicotyle chrysophrii in cage-reared gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. Aquaculture 408-409: 15-19. Go to original source...
  30. Rigos G., Henry M., Tsigenopoulos C. 2015: Sparicotyle chrysophrii and gilthead sea bream - potential experimental infection model. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 35: 49-53.
  31. Rigos G., Samartzis A., Henry M., Fountoulaki E., Cotou E., Sweetman J., Davies S., Nengas I. 2010: Effects of additive iron on growth, tissue distribution, haematology and immunology of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Aquac. Int. 18: 1093-1104. Go to original source...
  32. Rohde K. 1977: A non-competitive mechanism responsible for restricting niches. Zool. Anz. 199: 164-172.
  33. Rózsa L., Reiczigel J., Majoros G. 2000: Quantifying parasites in samples of hosts. J. Parasitol. 86: 228-232. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  34. Sanz F. 1992: Mortality of cultured seabream (Sparus aurata) caused by an infection with a trematode of the genus Microcotyle. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol. 12: 186-188.
  35. Sitjà-Bobadilla A., Alvarez-Pellitero P. 2009: Experimental transmission of Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea) to gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and histopathology of the infection. Folia Parasitol. 56: 143-151. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  36. Sitjà-Bobadilla A., de Felipe M.C., Alvarez-Pellitero P. 2006: In vivo and in vitro treatments against Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) parasitizing the gills of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Aquaculture 261: 856-864. Go to original source...
  37. Sun C.Q., O'Connor C.J., Roberton A.M. 2003: Antibacterial actions of fatty acids and monoglycerides against Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 36: 9-17. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  38. Sweetman J.W., Torrecillas S., Dimitroglou A., Rider S., Davies S.J., Izquierdo M.S. 2010: Enhancing the natural defences and barrier protection of aquaculture species. Aquacult. Res. 41: 345-355. Go to original source...
  39. Torrecillas S., Makol A., Caballero M.J., Montero D., Robaina L., Real F., Sweetman J., Tort L., Izquierdo M.S. 2007: Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 23: 969-981. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  40. Vagianou S., Athanassopoulou F., Ragias V., Di Cave D., Leontides L., Golomazou E. 2006: Prevalence and pathology of ectoparasites of Mediterranean sea bream and sea bass