Folia Parasitologica, vol. 29 (1982), issue 2

Aspects of evolutionary parasitology.

B I Lebedev

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 97-105 (1982)

Parasitic animals make up one fifth to one fourth of all known animal species. There are many correct definitions of the parasitism, but the determinations as a qualitatively specific form of existence of organisms are logically well-grounded only within the concepts of symbiosis. The parasitism opposes with the predatoriness which cannot be ascribed to symbiotic types of vital activity. The problems of the population and niche are discussed in the present paper. An analysis is given of the parasitological niche the parameters of which coincide with the phenomena characteristic for the specificity. A somewhat changed definition of parasitism is proposed....

Blood parasites of birds in Central Europe. 4. Trypanosoma, "Atoxoplasma", Microfilariae and other rare haematozoa.

J Kucera

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 107-113 (1982)

The present paper, the last in the series on avian blood parasites in Central Europe, summarizes the data on parasites of the genera Trypanosoma, "Atoxoplasma", "Lankesterella", microfilariae and spirochaetes found in this region. Trypanosomes occur most frequently in Columbiformes, Corvidae, Galliformes and Strigiformes, while "Aloxoplasma" is encountered only in passerines, most frequently in Fringillidae, Passeridae and Hirundinidae; "Lankesterella" is to be found only in two species of passerines. Microfilariae occur in Corvidae and Galliformes, and spirochaetes were encountered in the blood smears from four birds only. All these organisms are...

First detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in calf faeces by floatation method.

I Pavlásek

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 115 (1982)

Oocysts of coccidia of the genes Cryptosporidium were detected for the first time in the faeces of naturally infected calves using centrifugation floatation method with saturated solution of ZnSo4 and Breza's floatation solution. Since the detection of oocysts in the faeces is very difficult, a new method has been prepared. The oocysts recovered from the faeces were sporulated, spherical or slightly elliptical, with a smooth, colourless and thin wall. In the fresh preparation after floatation the oocysts measured 5.4 X 4.6 micrometer on the average, whereas in the smears stained after Giemsa, their average size was 4.8 X 4.3 micrometer. A typical feature...

Proposal of a new systematic arrangement of nematodes of the family Capillariidae.

F Moravec

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 119-132 (1982)

A new delimitation of genera within the nematode family Capillariidae is proposed on the basis of revaluation of the features used in the taxonomy of these nematodes. The following genera are recognized as valid: Schulmanela Ivashkin, 1964 (subgenera Schulmanela Ivashkin, 1964, Piscicapillaria subgen. n. and Amphibiocapillaria subgen. n.), Paracapillaria Mendonça, 1963, Capillostrongyloides Freitas et Lent, 1935, Pseudocapillaria Freitas, 1959 (subgenera Pseudocapillaria Freitas, 1959 and Ichthyocapillaria subgen. n.). Freitascapillaria gen. n., Baruscapillaria gen. n., Liniscus Dujardin, 1845, Pearsonema Freitas et Mendonça, 1960, Capillaria Zeder,...

Parasitological investigation of children's sandboxes and dog faeces from public areas of housing development in Prague.

J Valkounová

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 133-138 (1982)

Two hundred sand samples from 50 children's sandboxes and 500 samples of dog faeces collected in 10 Prague housing developments were examined for the presence of parasites. Eggs of three helminth species were found in 28% of sandboxes and eggs and oocysts of 10 species of parasites were found in 10.4% of dog faeces. Toxocara canis occurred in 9 sandboxes and 3.2% of dog faeces, T. cati in 0.2% of dog faeces. The results from housing developments are compared with those from older estates.

NEOAPLECTANA BIBIONIS BOVIEN, 1937, AN OBLIGATE PARASITE OF INSECTS ISOLATED FROM FOREST SOIL IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA

Z MRACEK, J GUT, S GERDIN

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 139 (1982)

Pathology and neonatal infection of calves with Cysticercus bovis.

K Blazek, J Schramlová, J Kursa

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 147 (1982)

It was demonstrated that the tissue reaction around the developing C. bovis in neonatally infected calves (4 days after birth) differs quantitatively and partly also qualitatively from the reaction in calves infected at the age of several months. In neonatal infection, the foci caused by cysticerci were 3-4-times smaller on day 14 p.i., and after 34 days, the cysts were quite transparent and similar to those occurring in older calves not before 42-50 days p.i. The tissue eosinophilia was lacking and the activation of fibroblasts and collagen formation was markedly weak. There was a surprisingly low number of cells of lymphoid type. The growth of the...

Comparative electron microscopic and cytochemical studies on the cuticle and the hypodermis of Trichinella nativa (Britov et Boev, 1972) and T. pseudospiralis (Garkavi, 1972).

D Hulinská, B Shaikenov

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 159 (1982)

Using cytochemical methods, we disclosed both in the cuticle and the hypodermis of two-day-old females of T. nativa and T. pseudospiralis, in the area of the oesophagus, these substances: Cystine-containing proteins of the SS group, carbohydrates, acidic mucopolysaccharides (AMS), acid phosphatase (ACP) and a nonspecific esterase (NE). A regularly transverse striation (striae) in the cuticle reacts strongly with the method for cystine-containing proteins, weakly for carbohydrates, and negatively for AMS. Striae are present in most parts of the cuticle of T, nativa. By contrast, the amorphous cuticle of T. pseudospiralis is not striated, it stains for...

A study on the morphology of early larval stages of Toxocara Cati (Schrank, 1788).

M Uhlíková, J Hübner

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 165-166 (1982)

Laelapidae (Acarina) of some small mammals from Toro game reserve, Uganda.

F Dusbábek, M Daniel, W M Til

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 167-176 (1982)

Laelapid mites of some small mammals from the Toro Game Reserve in Western Uganda were studied. The following species were determined: Laelaps (Echinolaelaps) muricola Trägardh, L. (E.) giganteus Berlese, L. (laelaps) grenieri Taufflieb, L. (L.) kampalensis Taufflieb, L. (L.) liberiensis Hirst, Androlaelaps callosus (Berlese) and A. zulu (Berlese). A female and a male of a new species Androlaelaps verneri sp. N. and up to now unknown males of A. callosus and L. kampalensis are described. All species found are briefly discussed.

Small terrestrial mammals as reservoirs of leptospires in the Sava Valley (Croatia).

B Borcić, H Kovacić, Z Sebek, B Aleraj, N Tvrtković

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 177-182 (1982)

Small mammals trapped in seven sites along the river Sava in Croatia were examined for leptospiral infection by renoculture and serological methods. Of the 1749 animals caught 702 were examined by renoculture method and 626 were tested by microagglutination-lysis. The dominant animals species caught were Microtus arvalis (672 animals) and Apodemus agrarius (552 animals). Of the 115 strains of leptospires isolated the dominant serotypes were L. grippotyphosa (40) and L. pomona (35). Five strains of L. sejroe, 9 strains of L. australis, 1 strain of L. bataviae and 25 undetermined strains were isolated, the infection rate ranging from 3 to 32%. Serologic...

Short communications. A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with the isolation of the parasite.

M Giboda, M Maloveská

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 183 (1982)

Cutaneous leishmaniasis of the zoonotic, rural type caused by Leishmania major was dignosed in a Czechoslovak citizen returning from Iraq. a Leishmania strain was isolated for the first time in Czechoslovakia from the skin lesion on the right forearm of the patient. No treatment was necessary because spontaneous healing of the lesion was well under way.

SENSORY ENDINGS AND MICROVILLI IN THE TEGUMENT OF CERCARIA OF EURYTREMA PANCREATICUM AS REVEALED BY SCANNING ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY

Z ZDARSKA

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 187 (1982)

THE FINDING OF THE CESTODE PROTEOCEPHALUS NEGLECTUS LA RUE, 1911 FROM BROWN TROUT FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA

F MORAVEC

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 189-190 (1982)

A CONTRIBUTION TO THE POLYMORPHISM OF HYPODECTES PROPUS (NITZSCH, 1861) MALES (ACARINA, SARCOPTIFORMES)

K SAMSINAK

Folia Parasitologica 29[2] 191-192 (1982)