Folia Parasitologica, vol. 45 (1998), issue 2

The epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: application of experimental sub-typing and antibody detection systems to the investigation of water-borne outbreaks

James McLauchlin, David P. Casemore, Sheila Moran, Sushma Patel

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 83-92 (1998)

A technique based on the analysis of banding patterns obtained by SDS-PAGE Western-blotting of an oocyst wall antigen obtained from faeces has been evaluated to subtype Cryptosporidium parvum Tyzzer, 1912. This technique appears to have sufficient stability to recognise multiple types of this parasite. A similar Western-blotting technique has also been used to assess antibody responses to cryptosporidial antigens in human sera. Two systems were developed: one against three antigens of apparent molecular weights 6, 14 and 17 kDa; the second against oocyst wall antigens of apparent molecular weights 57, 69, 75, 89, 128, 151 and 173 kDa. Antibodies to...

New species of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards

Břetislav Koudela, David Modrý

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 93-100 (1998)

A new Cryptosporidium species, C. saurophilum, is described from Schneider's skinks Eumeces schneideri Daudin, 1802. Oocysts were fully sporulated in fresh faeces and measured 5.0 × 4.7 µm (4.4-5.6 × 4.2-5.2 µm). The new species differs from C. serpentis Levine, 1980 by having smaller oocysts, developing in a different location of intestine, and by the inability to infect snakes.

Cryptosporidium parvum infection in experimentally infected mice: infection dynamics and effect of immunosuppression

Raquel Tarazona, David A. Blewett, Manuel Dominguez Carmona

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 101-107 (1998)

The effect of mouse strain, age, sex, and the size of infective dose on the susceptibility to infection with the coccidium Cryptosporidium parvum Tyzzer, 1912 was determined using several murine models. Mice were infected with C. parvum oocysts originally of cervine origin, maintained by repeat passage in calves. All mice in the experimental groups proved susceptible to infection, though this resulted asymptomatic in all cases. C. parvum infection in BALB/c and Porton mice exhibited some variation. BALB/c mice demonstrated a longer prepatent period than Porton mice. They also produced a greater oocyst output over the patent period, though the differences...

The serological surveillance of several groups of patients using antigens of Encephalitozoon hellem and E. cuniculi antibodies to microsporidia in patients

Zuzana Kučerová-Pospíšilová, Oleg Ditrich

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 108-112 (1998)

This study was undertaken to attempt to identify correlations between microsporidial seroprevalence data in man, clinical diseases and groups of people at the risk of HIV/AIDS infection. Groups of patients were selected according to the predilection of members of the genus Encephalitozoon for nervous and kidney tissue. Female prostitutes and alcohol and intravenous drug abusers were selected as groups at risk of HIV/AIDS infections. A total of 401 samples of human sera were examined for the presence of antimicrosporidial IgG antibodies by ELISA test with a titre of 600 considered borderline positivity. The highest occurrence of antimicrosporidial antibodies...

Viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in natural waters

Brasseur P, Uguen C, Moreno-Sabater A, Favennec L, Ballet JJ

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 113-116 (1998)

Water-borne transmission of the coccidium Cryptosporidium parvum Tyzzer, 1912 is frequently responsible for outbreaks of human cryptosporidiosis. One of the most important was reported in 1993 in Milwaukee in the United States, where 403,000 cases were recorded. The determination of the percentage of oocysts excystated is the first step in evaluating their viability, but it alone is not sufficient. This percentage depended on the conditions of storage and also the presence of oxidant or disinfectent agents in water. The percentage of excystation is not always related to viability. Therefore, determination of the viability of excysted sporozoites by...

Characterization and function of the microsporidian polar tube: a review

Elaine M. Keohane, Louis M. Weiss

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 117-127 (1998)

Microsporidia are eukaryotic, obligate intracellular organisms defined by their small spores containing a single polar tube that coils around the interior of the spore. After appropriate stimuli the germination of spores occurs. Conditions that promote germination vary widely among species, presumably reflecting the organism's adaptation to their host and external environment as well as preventing accidental discharge in the environment. It appears that calcium may be a key ion in this process. Regardless of the stimuli required for activation, all microsporidia exhibit the same response to the stimuli, that is, increasing the intrasporal osmotic pressure....

Screening of compounds for antimicrosporidial activity in vitro

Elizabeth S. Didier, Joseph A. Maddry, Cecil D. Kwong, Linda C. Green, Karen F. Snowden, John A. Shadduck

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 129-139 (1998)

Relatively few effective compounds are available for treating microsporidiosis in humans. In this study, several compounds were assayed for activity against Encephalitozoon intestinalis (Cali, Kotler et Orenstein, 1993) and Vittaforma corneae Shadduck, Meccoli, Davis et Font, 1990 in vitro. Of the benzimidazoles tested, albendazole was most effective and the MIC50 values were 8.0 ng/ml and 55.0 ng/ml for E. intestinalis and V. corneae, respectively. Fumagillin and its analogue, TNP-470 were nearly equally effective against both E. intestinalis and V. corneae. The MIC50 values of fumagillin were 0.52 ng/ml and 0.81 ng/ml, and the MIC50 values of TNP-470...

Polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis and species differentiation of microsporidia

Caspar Franzen, Andreas Müller, Pia Hartmann, Petra Hegener, Matthias Schrappe, Volker Diehl, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Bernd Salzberger

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 140-148 (1998)

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques have been developed for the detection of microsporidian DNA in different biological samples. We used sequence data of the rRNA gene for the identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. cuniculi, and E. hellem in different biological samples of HIV-infected patients by PCR, Southern blot hybridization, restriction endonuclease digestion analysis, cloning, and comparative genetic sequencing. One primer pair was used for amplification of the entire small subunit (SSU)-rRNA gene of E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis, and E. hellem from samples with electron microscopy confirmed infection....

Intestinal microsporidiosis in African skink Mabuya perrotetii

Břetislav Koudela, Elizabeth S. Didier, Linda B. Rogers, David Modrý, Štěpánka Kučerová

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 149-155 (1998)

Intestinal microsporidiosis was documented by detecting abundant slightly curved spores (2.9 × 1.2 µm) in the faeces of five of twelve skinks Mabuya perrotetii Duméril et Bibron, 1839 that originated from Ghana. Clinically, the microsporidiosis was characterized by decreased appetite, diarrhea, and weight loss. Histopathological changes consisted of villous atrophy, blunting of mucosa and flattening of individual epithelial cells in the large intestine. The ultrastructure of microsporidian spores was consistent with an Encephalitozoon species. The PCR-RFLP assay and the heteroduplex mobility shift analyses were used to verify that the skink microsporidian...

A Trachipleistophora-like microsporidium of man: its dimorphic nature and relationship to Thelohania apodemi

Jiří Vávra, Anthony T. Yachnis, Elizabeth U. Canning, Alan Curry, John A. Shadduck, Jan M. Orenstein

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 157-162 (1998)

The structure of the human microsporidium found by Yachnis and colleagues in two AIDS patients (Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 106: 535-43, 1996) (hereafter referred to as HMY) was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy and compared with Thelohania apodemi Doby, Jeannes et Raoult, 1963, a microsporidian of small rodents. The fine structure of the HMY was found to be similar to that of Trachipleistophora hominis Hollister, Canning, Weidner, Field, Kench et Marriott, 1996. Characteristic is the presence of a thick layer of electron dense material on the outer face of the meront plasmalemma, which is maintained during the whole life cycle and...

Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients with diarrhoea in Santa Maria Hospital, Lisbon

Olga Matos, Ana Tomás, Pedro Aguiar, David Casemore, Francisco Antunes

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 163-166 (1998)

We report the findings of a longitudinal observational study on HIV-infected patients grouped by presumed transmission group, who had diarrhoea. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection on these patients. Modified formol-ether concentration followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen and phenol-auramine/carbol-fuchsin staining techniques were used to identify Cryptosporidium from 465 patients. Cryptosporidiosis was reported in 36/465 (8% and 95% confidence interval 6, 10) patients. Of the positive patients 30 (83%) were men and 6 (17%) women. Prevalence of infection was higher among HIV-seropositive...

Coccidia of genus Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the long nosed vine snake, Ahaetulla nasuta (Serpentes: Colubridae: Boiginae) from southern India, with a description of C. veselyi sp. n.

David Modrý, Břetislav Koudela

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 167-169 (1998)

Faecal examination of the long nosed vine snake Ahaetulla nasuta Lacépède, 1789 revealed two species of caryosporan coccidia. The morphology of one species fits well with a description of Caryospora ahaetullae Modrý et Koudela, 1994, the second is a previously undescribed species. Oocysts of Caryospora veselyi sp. n. were spherical, 18.9 (16.5-21.5) µm in diameter, with pitted and brownish oocyst wall about 1.5 µm thick. An irregular polar granule about 2.0 × 1.0 µm was observed in 35% of the oocysts examined. Sporocysts were octozoic, ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 13.7 (13.0-15.5) × 10.3 (9.0-11.0) µm with a shape index 1.3...

Clinical features of diarrhoea in children caused by Cryptosporidium parvum

Chmelik V, Ditrich O, Trnovcova R, Gutvirth J

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 170-172 (1998)

The role of wild rodents in ecology of cryptosporidiosis in Poland

Edward Siński, Małgorzata Bednarska, Anna Bajer

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 173-174 (1998)

Attempts to transmit Cryptosporidium baileyi, C-muris and C-parvum to aquatic lower vertebrates

Bekesi L, Sreter T, Dobos-Kovacs M, Varga I

Folia Parasitologica 45[2] 175-176 (1998)