Folia Parasitologica 64:032 (2017) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2017.032
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in the inflammatory process. In the skin, it contributes to immune containment of tick-transmitted pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi. In the saliva of some tick species, active compounds are present that inhibit detection of TNF in specific ELISA. We compared the presence of anti-TNF activity in saliva or salivary gland extract from 11 tick species from the family Ixodidae and demonstrated it in genera Ixodes Latreille, 1795 and Haemaphysalis Koch, 1844. Analysis of anti-TNF activity in Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) saliva during the feeding period showed that it is present in the late, rapid phase of engorgement. Significance of anti-TNF activity for tick feeding and transmission of tick-borne pathogens is discussed.
Received: June 13, 2017; Accepted: September 14, 2017; Published online: October 20, 2017