Folia Parasitologica, vol. 64 (2017)

Folia Parasitologica 64:031 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.031

Feeding strategies and competition between terrestrial Haemadipsa leeches (Euhirudinea: Arhynchobdellida) in Danum Valley rainforest (Borneo, Sabah)

Piotr G±siorek, Hanna Różycka
Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland

Haemadipsid leeches are among the most successful terrestrial invertebrates in Bornean rainforests. They are very common ectoparasites of vertebrates, and their abundance has facilitated the conduction of numerous projects in the fields of ecology, zoogeography and taxonomy. We undertook research on two species inhabiting lowland dipterocarp forest, Haemadipsa picta Moore, 1929 and Haemadipsa subagilis (Moore, 1929), in order to address the following questions: (a) is there a difference in leech abundance between trails and off-trails?; (b) is ambush location dependent on specimen size or is species-specific?; (c) is intra- and interspecific competition limited by differences in foraging behaviours or vertical niche partitioning? Our results clearly show that H. picta is more abundant on trails than on off-trails and is vertically dispersed within the understory; the size of a specimen is strongly correlated with plant height. Haemadipsa subagilis was found not to exhibit such patterns. We suggest a possible lowering of interspecific competition between these species as a result of: (i) size-dependent dispersion of H. picta (together with reduction of intraspecific competition); and (ii) habitat specialisation of H. subagilis. Moreover, we provide new observations on their foraging behaviour.

Keywords: ectoparasites, foraging behaviour, Haemadipsidae, haematophagy, parasitism

Received: February 1, 2017; Accepted: August 18, 2017; Published online: October 3, 2017


References

  1. Anderson R.M., May R.M. 1978: Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions: I. Regulatory processes. J. Anim. Ecol. 47: 219-247. Go to original source...
  2. Bashey F., Sarin T., Lively C.M. 2016: Aging alters interspecific competition between two sympatric insect-parasitic nematode species. Ecol. Evol. 6: 3750-3759. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  3. Ben Ahmed R., Ropelewska E., Bielecki A., Cichocka J. 2009: Batracobdella algira Moquin-Tandon, 1846 (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae) - morphometric analysis and internal morphology. Wiad. Parazytol. 55: 353-358. Go to PubMed...
  4. Blanchard R. 1849: Recherches sur l'organisation des vers. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 11: 106-202.
  5. Borda E., Oceguera-Figueroa A., Siddall M.E. 2008: On the classification, evolution and biogeography of terrestrial haemadipsoid leeches (Hirudinida: Arhynchobdellida: Hirudiniformes). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 46: 142-154. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  6. Borda E., Siddall M.E. 2004: Review of the evolution of life history strategies and phylogeny of the Hirudinida (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Lauterbornia 52: 5-25.
  7. Borda E., Siddall M.E. 2010: Insights into the evolutionary history of Indo-Pacific blood feeding terrestrial leeches (Hirudinida: Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipisdae). Invert. Syst. 24: 456-472. Go to original source...
  8. Chin Teh J., Kamarudin M.S., Abd-Rahim A., Saad C.R., Ramezani-Fard E. 2012: Effects of feeding frequency on the survival, growth and body composition of buffalo leech, Hirudinaria manillensis. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 8: 130-134.
  9. Davies R.W., Kasserra C.E. 1989: Foraging activity of two species of predatory leeches exposed to active and sedentary prey. Oecologia 81: 329-334. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Esser H.J., Foley J.E., Bongers F., Herre E.A., Miller M.J., Prins H.H.T., Jansen P.A. 2016: Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates. Int. J. Parasitol. Parasites Wildl. 5: 295-304. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  11. Fogden S.C.L., Proctor J. 1985: Notes on the feeding of land leeches (Haemadipsa zeylanica Moore and H. picta Moore) in Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak. Biotropica 17: 172-174. Go to original source...
  12. Govedich F.R., Moser W.E., Davies R.W. 2004: Annelida: Clitellata, Hirudinea, Euhirudinea. In: C.M. Yule and H.S. Yong (Eds.), Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region, Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 175-190.
  13. Inger R.F., Greenberg B. 1966: Ecological and competitive relations among three species of frogs (genus Rana). Ecology 47: 746-759. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  14. Johnson D. 1996: Palms: their conservation and sustained utilization. Status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC Action Plans for the Conservation of Biological Diversity 8, 116 pp.
  15. Johnson C.A., Herbers J.M. 2006: Impact of parasite sympatry on the geographic mosaic of coevolution. Ecology 87: 382-394. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  16. Kappes H. 2013: Genetics and morphology of the genus Tritetrabdella (Hirudinea, Haemadipsidae) from the mountainous rain forests of Sabah, Borneo, reveal a new species with two new subspecies. Contrib. Zool. 82: 185-197.
  17. Kendall A. 2012: The effect of rainforest modification on two species of South-East Asian terrestrial leeches, Haemadipsa zeylanica and Haemadipsa picta. MSc. thesis, Imperial College, London, 29 pp.
  18. Kutschera U. 2003: The feeding strategies of the leech Erpobdella octoculata (L.): a laboratory study. Int. Rev. Hydrobiol. 88: 94-101. Go to original source...
  19. Lai Y.-T., Chen, J.-H. 2010: Leech Fauna of Taiwan. Biota Taiwanica. National Taiwan University Press, Taipei, 118 pp.
  20. Lai Y.-T., Nakano T., Chen J.-H. 2011: Three species of land leeches from Taiwan, Haemadipsa rjukjuana comb. n., a new record for Haemadipsa picta Moore, and an updated description of Tritetrabdella taiwana (Oka). ZooKeys 139: 1-22. Go to original source...
  21. Moore J.P. 1929: Leeches from Borneo with description of new species. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 81: 267-295.
  22. Moore J.P. 1935: Leeches from Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. Bull. Raffles Mus. 10: 67-79.
  23. Moore J.P. 1938: Leeches (Hirudinea) principally from the Malay peninsula, with descriptions of new species. Bull. Raffles Mus. 14: 64-80.
  24. Nakano T., Jeratthitikul E., Nguyen T.T., Somsak P. 2016: A new species of Tritetrabdella (Hirudinida: Hirudiniformes: Haemadipsidae) from northern Indochina. Raffles Bull. Zool. 64: 105-116.
  25. Nakano T., Sung Y.-H. 2014: A new host record for Tritetrabdella taiwana (Hirudinida: Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) from the asian painted frog Kaloula pulchra (Anura: Microhylidae) in Hong Kong, China, with a taxonomic note on T. taiwana. Comp. Parasitol. 81: 125-129. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  26. Newbery D.M., Kennedy D.N., Petol G.H., Madani L., Ridsdale C.E. 1999: Primary forest dynamics in lowland dipterocarp forest at Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, and the role of the understorey. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci. 354: 1763-1782. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  27. Rocha R., Borda E., Andreone F., Rosa G.M. 2012: First reports of leech parasitism in Malagasy anurans. Comp. Parasitol. 79: 352-356. Go to original source...
  28. Sawyer R.T. 1981: Leech biology and behavior. In: E. Nicholls, K.J. Muller and G.S. Stent (Eds.), Neurobiology of The Leech, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp. 7-26.
  29. Sawyer R.T., Lepont F., Stuart D.K., Kramer A.P. 1981: Growth and reproduction of the giant glossiphoniid leech Haementeria ghilianii. Biol. Bull. 160: 322-331. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  30. Sawyer R.T., Taylor A., Sahat M.J.H. 1982: The leeches of Brunei (Annelida: Hirudinea), with a checklist and key to the known and expected freshwater, terrestrial and marine leeches of Borneo. J. Brunei Mus. 5: 168-201.
  31. Schnell I.B., Sollmann R., Calvignac-Spencer S., Siddall M.E., Yu D.W., Wilting A., Gilbert M.T.P. 2015: iDNA from terrestrial haematophagous leeches as a wildlife surveying and monitoring tool - prospects, pitfalls and avenues to be developed. Front. Zool. 12: 24. Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  32. Siddall M.E., Burreson E.M. 1996: Leeches (Oligochaeta?: Euhirudinea), their phylogeny and the evolution of life-history strategies. Hydrobiologia 334: 277-285. Go to original source...
  33. Sket B., Trontelj P. 2008: Global diversity of leeches (Hirudinea) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 129-137. Go to original source...
  34. Smythies B.E. 1959: Leeches of Borneo. Sarawak Mus. J. 13: 279-294.
  35. Williams J.I., Burreson E.M. 2006: Phylogeny of the fish leeches (Oligochaeta, Hirudinida, Piscicolidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes and morphology. Zool. Scr. 35: 627-639. Go to original source...
  36. Willott S.J., Lim D.C., Compton S.G., Sutton S.L. 2000: Effects of selective logging on the butterflies of a Bornean rainforest. Conserv. Biol. 14: 1055-1065. Go to original source...