Folia Parasitologica, vol. 61 (2014), issue 6

Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

Jaroslav Flegr, Madhukar Dama

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 485-494 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.061

Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation...

High prevalence of trypanosome co-infections in freshwater fishes

Anastasiia Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Alexander Losev, Alexei Yu. Kostygov, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 495-504 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.064

One thousand three hundred seventy three fish specimens of eight different species from the vicinity of Kyiv, Ukraine, were examined for the presence of trypanosomes and 921 individuals were found to be infected. The prevalence of infection ranged from 24% in freshwater bream, Abramis brama (Linnaeus), to 100 % in spined loach, Cobitis 'taenia' Linnaeus. The level of parasitaemia also varied significantly between generally mild infections in pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus), and heavy ones in C. 'taenia'. In most cases the infections with trypanosomes were asymptomatic. Cases of co-infection with species...

Myxobolus oralis sp. n. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the palate in the mouth of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)

Yang Liu, Christopher M. Whipps, Pin Nie, Zemao Gu

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 505-511 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.052

During a survey on the myxosporean fauna of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in China, a species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 that did not conform to any known species was found. The species is characterised by the presence of round to ellipsoidal plasmodia of 2.6-4.0 mm in diameter in the palate of host. Mature spores are obovate in frontal view and lemon-shaped in lateral view, with the following range, mean and standard deviation of dimensions: 10.8-12.8 µm (11.7 ± 0.4 µm) long, 8.2-9.9 µm (8.9 ± 0.4 µm) wide and 6.0-7.5 µm (6.8 ± 0.3 µm) thick. Two polar capsules...

Bile canalicular changes and defective bile secretion in Opisthorchis viverrini-infected hamsters

Lakhanawan Charoensuk, Porntip Pinlaor, Umawadee Laothong, Puangrat Yongvanit, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yukifumi Nawa, Somchai Pinlaor

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 512-522 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.063

Infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Digenea) (Poirier, 1886) causes bile duct injury and periductal fibrosis by chronic overproduction of inflammatory-mediators and eventually results in cholangiocarcinoma development. While extensive research works have been done on O. viverrini infection-associated changes of bile ducts and periductal fibrosis, little attention was paid on morphological and biochemical changes of the bile canaliculi (BC), the origin of bile flow. We aimed to investigate the morphological and functional alterations of BC in the liver of hamsters infected with O. viverrini at one and three months...

Phylogenetic relationships and systematic position of the families Cortrematidae and Phaneropsolidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea)

Gerard Kanarek, Grzegorz Zaleśny, Jiljí Sitko, Vasyl V. Tkach

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 523-528 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.057

The systematic position and phylogenetic relationships of the family Cortrematidae Yamaguti, 1958 have always been controversial. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships of this family and its constituent genera and families within the superfamily Microphalloidea were evaluated using previously published and newly obtained sequences of 28S rDNA of Cortrema magnicaudata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1950) (Cortrematidae), Phaneropsolus praomydis Baer, 1971 and Microtrema barusi Sitko, 2013 (Phaneropsolidae). Results clearly demonstrate that the genus Cortrema Tang, 1951 is closest to Gyrabascus Macy 1935,...

Revision of the genus Afrogyrodactylus Paperna, 1968 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) with description of two new species from geographically distant localities

Iva Přikrylová, Wilmien J. Luus-Powell

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 529-536 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.066

This study revises the originally monotypic genus Afrogyrodactylus Paperna, 1968 (Monogenea), the species of which infect alestid fish (Characiformes) in Africa, and includes new records of these parasites from three geographically distant countries, Senegal, Sudan and South Africa. Morphology of opisthaptoral hooks and bars and nuclear ribosomal DNA data revealed three Afrogyrodactylus species. Afrogyrodactylus girgifae sp. n. is described from the fins of the Sudanese nurse tetra, Brycinus nurse (Rüppell), and A. kingi sp. n. presents from the gill arches of the South African sharptooth tetra, Micralestes acutidens...

Assessment of platyhelminth diversity within amphibians of French Guiana revealed a new species of Nanopolystoma (Monogenea: Polystomatidae) in the caecilian Typhlonectes compressicauda

Louis H. du Preez, Mathieu Badets, Olivier Verneau

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 537-542 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.065

An expedition was undertaken to French Guiana in search of amphibian parasites. Of the 23 anuran species collected and screened for polystomes, the toad Rhinella margaritifera (Laurenti) was the sole species found to be infected with a polystome, namely Wetapolystoma almae Gray, 1983. Of the two caecilian species collected, a new species of Nanopolystoma du Preez, Huyse et Wilkinson, 2008 was discovered from the urinary bladder of the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes compressicauda (Duméril et Bibron). The small size of the mature worm, two non-diverticulated caeca of equal length that are non-confluent posteriorly, vitelline...

Parapedocotyle prolatili gen. n. et sp. n., a representative of a new subfamily of the Diclidophoridae (Monogenea), a gill parasite of Prolatilus jugularis (Teleostei: Pinguipedidae) from Chile

Marcelo E. Oliva, Fabiola A. Sepulveda, M. Teresa González

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 543-548 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.067

Parapedocotylinae, a new subfamily, is proposed to accommodate the gen. n. et sp. n. Parapedocotyle prolatili (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae), a gill parasite of the Pacific sandperch, Prolatilus jugularis (Valenciennes) (Pinguipedidae) from northern Chile (30°56'S; 71°20'W). Among the Diclidophoridae Cerfontaine, 1895, the species of the Pedocotylinae Yamaguti, 1963 are unique by bearing the first pair of clamps (most posteriorly) in a haptoral projection. Pedocotyle MacCallum, 1913, the only genus in the Pedocotylinae, is characterised by the first pair of clamps non-pedunculate, modified and non-functional, without accessory suckers,...

Ultrastructure and chemical composition of the proboscis hooks of Acanthocephalus lucii (Müller, 1776) (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) using X-ray elemental analysis

Tímea Brázová, Larisa G. Poddubnaya, Noemí Ramírez Miss, Vladimíra Hanzelová

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 549-557 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.053

The ultrastructure and chemical composition of the proboscis hooks and surrounding tegument of Acanthocephalus lucii (Müller, 1776), a parasite of European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The blade of middle hooks consists of three layers: an outer homogeneous layer, an inner heterogeneous layer and a central core. TEM observation revealed the presence of hollow tubes, which spaced the central core; fibrous inner hook layer surrounded by an electron-dense margin and the basal tegumental layer filled with electron-dense bodies...

Consumption of untested pork contributed to over two-thousand clinical cases of human trichinellosis in Romania

Cristina Dobrescu, Horia Hriscu, Mihaela Emandi, Carmen Zamfir, Codruta Nemet

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 558-560 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.055

Trichinellosis is an important zoonosis that is difficult to diagnose and that can lead to disability, death and economic losses for the meat processing industry. The outbreaks are related to the consumption of insufficiently cooked pork containing larvae of Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1833). Here, we describe epidemiological features of the disease in a region where incidence rates are typically elevated (Brasov County, Romania). Our descriptive, retrospective epidemiological study spanned a period of 25 years (1983-2007) in a group of 3 345 consumers of infected meat, of whom 2 179 became infected. Both raw pork and processed pork products...

Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models

Meenakshi Verma, Manisha Pathak, Mohd Shahab, Kavita Singh, Kalyan Mitra, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 561-570 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.068

Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100%...

Ophidascaris wangi sp. n. and O. najae (Gedoelst, 1916) (Ascaridida: Ascaridoidea) from snakes in China

Liang Li, Yan-Ning Guo, Jian Li, Lu-Ping Zhang

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 571-580 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.059

Ophidascaris wangi sp. n. collected from the king rat snake Elaphe carinata (Günther) (Serpentes: Colubridae) in China is described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species differs from its congeners in the presence of narrow lateral alae originating a short distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips, its relatively long oesophagus (3.57-4.54 mm long, representing 6.6-7.6% of body length), its short spicules (1.89-2.14 mm long, representing 3.9-4.3% of body length), the number and arrangement of caudal papillae (49-57 pairs in total, arranged as follows: 43-51 pairs precloacal, 2 pairs joined paracloacal...

Differences between populations of Spinturnix myoti (Acari: Mesostigmata) in breeding and non-breeding colonies of Myotis myotis (Chiroptera) in central Europe: the effect of roost type

Tomasz Postawa, Agnieszka Szubert-Kruszyńska, Hanna Ferenc

Folia Parasitologica 61[6] 581-588 (2014) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2014.060

We studied variations in the abundance of parasitic spinturnicid mites in relation to the gender, age and body condition of bats living in different habitats. Populations of Spinturnix myoti Kolenati, 1856 (Acari: Spinturnicidae), an ectoparasite of the bat Myotis myotis (Borkhausen) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), were investigated in two types of roosts differing in microclimatic conditions: caves (low temperature and high humidity) and attics (high temperature and low humidity). Our data suggest that bats from cave nursery colonies harbour more parasites than those from attic colonies, irrespective of host sex or age. In underground colonies,...