Preparation of manuscripts
1. PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS – GENERAL INFORMATION
1.1. Language. Manuscripts should be written in simple and concise scientific English using British spelling. Authors whose mother tongue is not English are strongly urged to have their manuscripts checked and improved linguistically by a native speaker (preferably, a life scientist) before submission. In fact, editorial office does not take responsibility of the quality of the English. Professional provider of pre-submission editing services, such as Enago (www.enago.com) or Edanz (www.edanzediting.com) can be consulted. Submissions written in poor English will be returned immediately.
1.2. Names. Scientific names of taxa up to the generic level should be italicised throughout. Current, valid names of hosts should be used (with synonyms, such as used in cited papers, given in parentheses). Scientific names of parasites and hosts studied should be given with authorities (and, for parasites, year of description) in the Abstract and, again, when first mentioned in the main body of text, and also in tables and figures legends. Otherwise, citing these authorities is to be avoided or used sparingly. Authority and year of description should also be given for parasites mentioned in taxonomic comparison. References to authors of names should not be included in the References section. The following style is required: Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758), Allocreadium patagonicum Shimazu, Urawa et Coria, 2000. (Note that names of all authors are given; ‘et’ connects two last authors’ names; and last author’s name is separated from year by comma.).
1.3. Numerals. All numerals from one to ten are spelled out in the text except for morphological descriptions.
1.4. Taxonomic descriptions. Authors should follow all requirements of the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (1999). This journal requires that at least holotype be deposited in an institution that provides long-term care of collections and access for study of deposited materials. One of such institutions is the Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre ASCR (publisher of this journal). Whenever possible, manuscripts containing description of new species of helminths or arthropods are expected to be accompanied with at least one paratype of each new taxon for scrutiny by reviewers and for subsequent deposition in the collection of the Institute (postal address: Tomáš Scholz, Curator, Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre CAS, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic).
Within taxonomic treatment the following order of data is preferred: species name, author with year of description (if not new species), reference to figures; synonymy; description in telegraphic style (i.e. omitting articles and as many verbs as can be elided without loss of meaning); after description: data for the material studied or taxonomic summary (type host, other hosts, type locality, other localities, site, prevalence, specimens deposited and their collection numbers); etymology; differential diagnosis (best headed as ‘Remarks’); other comments if appropriate.
1.5. Citations. For papers by two authors, names should be connected with ‘and’, e.g. Koskivaara and Valtonen (1992). For papers by more than two authors, the first author should be cited with ‘et al.’, e.g. Iglesias et al. (1997). Names and years should not be separated by commas, e.g. (Koskivaara and Valtonen 1992); commas, not semicolons, should separate citations in parentheses, e.g. (Koskivaara and Valtonen 1992, Iglesias et al. 1997a,b). In the text, references should be listed in chronological order; papers published in the same year are ordered alphabetically.
1.6. References to illustrations and tables. Examples: Fig. 1. Figs. 1, 2. Figs. 2A,B. Figs. 1–3. Table 1. Use fig. 1, i.e. do not capitalise, for figures in other papers.
2. PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS – ORGANISATION
The standard order of constituent parts for original full papers is: Title page (with Title, Author name[s], Running header, Abstract, Keywords, Address for correspondence); Introduction (which, however, does not bear this heading); Materials and Methods; Results; Discussion; Acknowledgements; References; Tables; Figure legends. The layout of research notes is similar to that of full papers but section headings (except for Abstract, Keywords and References) are omitted. For your convenience Folia Parasitologica has developed template word file to help you prepare your manuscript.
2.1. Title. Title should not mention authors of taxa and years of description unless in special cases (e.g. taxonomic revisions and redescriptions). Title is expected to contain names of higher taxa (such as order and family) accommodating the parasites and hosts under study; the names of higher taxa may not be appropriate for multiple parasites/hosts or widely used models in papers of experimental nature.
2.2. Authorship. Author names should be given in bold with full first names and with institutional addresses. Start each different address (not postal, i.e. without details such as street and ZIP code) on a separate line and separate them with semicolon.
2.3. Running header. Suggest a short version of title for use as running header (max. 5 words).
2.4. Abstract. It should be a factual summarisation of the main results and conclusions so that it can be published in abstracting journals without change. Abstracts, written without paragraphs, should not exceed 300 words (reviews and full papers) or 150 words (research notes). Abstracts of taxonomic papers should mention all nomenclatural acts and newly proposed nominal taxa with their brief differential diagnoses.
2.5. Keywords. Suggest a set of keywords (index terms). The set should be complete but keep it as short as possible (typically, under 10 words/phrases). Words from the title should not be repeated.
2.6. Address for correspondence. Full postal address, phone number, fax number and e-mail address should be given for corresponding author as a separate item on title page. These data will be used for editorial correspondence and later will be published in the article as a footnote.
2.7. Introduction. This section should be as short as possible, but aim(s) of a given study should be explicitly mentioned.
2.8. Materials and Methods. Section should provide adequate description of materials and methods used in the study. Methods already published elsewhere should be cited appropriately. Please write name of company, city and state, when first mentioned, e.g. DMEM/Hams F12 medium (1 : 1) (Sigma-Aldrich Co., St. Louis, Missouri, USA).
2.9. Results. Results should be clear and concise, and only new, original data should be presented here.
2.10. Discussion. It should discussed new data in relation to existing information. It should be straightforward, not wordy, and perspectives of future research should be outlined.
2.12. References. Entries should be listed alphabetically by names of all authors and, subordinately, chronologically. Author names should not be typed in capital letters. Title of journal article should be cited in full, followed by abbreviated name of journal as listed in Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Data Base (BioSciences Information Service, Philadelphia), volume and pagination (example 1). Issue number should be given (after volume, in parentheses) only if volume is not continuously paginated. Title and chapter pagination are required for chapters in monographs (2). Publisher, place where published and number of pages are required for monographs (3). Titles in languages other than English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian should be translated into English and their original language stated in parentheses. Titles whose English version is not that given in the original publication should be in square brackets (4). Electronic publication should be cited with the most recent version (5). Examples:
- (1) Moravec F., Bilal S.J., Abdullah S.M.A. 2012: Two species of Rhabdochona (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the cyprinid fish Luciobarbus kersin (Heckel) in northern Iraq, including R. (Globochona) kurdistanensis sp. n. Folia Parasitol. 59: 139–147. [Note that dash (–), not hyphen (-), should be used.]
- (2) Scholz T., Kuchta R., Williams C. 2012: Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934. In: P.T.K. Woo and K. Buchmann (Eds.), Fish Parasites: Pathobiology and Protection. CABI, Wallingford, pp. 292–307.
- (3) Růžek D. (Ed.) 2011: Flavivirus Encephalitis. InTech, Rijeka, 478 pp.
- (4) Lykova K.A., Gulyaev V.D., Melnikova Yu.A., Karpenko S.V. 2006: [On the species independence of Mathevolepis larbi Karpenko, 1982 (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae: Ditestolepidini).] Parazitologiya 40: 299–305. (In Russian.)
- (5) Froese R., Pauly D. (Eds.) 2016: FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication, www.fishbase.org, 1/2016.
- (6) Beveridge I. 2014: A review of the genus Paramoniezia Maplestone et Southwell, 1923 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), with a new genus, Phascolocestus, from wombats (Marsupialia) and redescriptions of Moniezia mettami Baylis, 1934 and Moniezia phacochoeri. Folia Parasitol. 61: (in press).
Listing theses (same style as for monographs, including total number of pages) is acceptable but other unpublished data, personal communications and papers ‘in preparation’ or ‘submitted’ should not be listed in the References. Only papers accepted for publication can be cited (6). Unpublished data may be incorporated in text with affiliation in abbreviated form given for their authors if different from authors of manuscript. Example: (J.M.C. Ribeiro, N.I.H., Bethesda, USA – pers. comm; T. Scholz, Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, ASCR, České Budějovice, CR – unpubl. data; A.A. – unpubl. data), where A.A. are initials of the author/coauthor of study.
2.13. Legends. All abbreviations and symbols appearing in figures should be explained in legends or (if too numerous and frequently repeated) collected in a list (preferably in Materials and Methods). For composite plates, a summary statement, if possible, should precede specific explanations to separate figures. Parasite (with authority and year) and host names (with authorities but not year) should be spelled out completely in each legend.
2.14. Tables. Tables, typed on separate files and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals, should be self-explanatory, i.e. their headings and explanations should make them fully understandable without reference to text.
3. PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS – FIGURES
3.1. Illustrations. Illustrations should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in left upper corner. Whenever possible, individual figures should be grouped together in a single block (composite figure) of rectangular shape, using space efficiently. Without change or after reduction, illustrations should neatly fit into one or two columns. The maximum printing area is 165 × 235 mm, but an appropriate space below figures should be left for legends. The elements of composite figure can be identified with consecutive Arabic numerals or with letters in Arial (in upper left corner). A scale bar is required for each figure (on right side), with units directly in figure.
3.2. Graphs. Two-dimensional black-and-white graphics are preferred. Lettering (in Arial) should be of such size that the height of characters, after possible reduction (often to one-column width, 80 mm), will be at least 2.5 and 1.25 mm (upper and lower case, respectively). The same font style and lettering size should be used for all graphs.
3.3. Photographs. It is optimal to submit photographs in the same size as they will appear in the journal. Space should be used efficiently; individual figures should be trimmed to contain only relevant information but areas of major interest (as well as labelling) should not be too close to the edges of figures. Individual figures should be composed in plates of rectangular shape. Magnification should be indicated by scale bars. All labels (i.e. figure identification, symbols, letters and scale bars) should be in Arial.
4. SPECIFIC REMARKS
Some specific remarks are listed below (in the case of any queries or doubts, please do not hesitate to request editorial assistant at email@example.com):
- Mean ± standard deviation (or standard error) should be provided only if n > 30; otherwise, mean with range should be presented.
- Gene abbreviations should be italicised, e.g. cox1.
- Primers are written by regular font.
- Protein/enzyme abbreviations should be capitalised.
- Descriptions should not include units; statement such as “All measurements are in micrometres unless otherwise indicated” should appear in the Materials and Methods section.
- Terms in Latin, e.g. in vitro, in vivo, pars prostatica, receptaculum seminis (but not seminal receptacle!) should be italicised.
- For coordinates please use these symbols: 47°25'04''S; 22°49'14''W.
- For time abbreviation use s (second), min (minute), h (hours).