Folia Parasitologica, vol. 64 (2017)
A synoptic review of Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fishes
Daniel Barčák, Mikuláą Oros, Vladimíra Hanzelová, Tomáą Scholz
Folia Parasitologica 64:027 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.027
Tapeworms of the genus Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Caryophyllidea: Caryophyllaeidae), common parasites of cyprinid fishes, are reviewed and taxonomic status of 42 nominal taxa that have been placed in the genus during its long history is clarified. The following seven species occurring in the Palaearctic Region are recognised as valid: C. laticeps (Pallas, 1781), C. auriculatus (Kulakovskaya, 1961), C. balticus (Szidat, 1941) comb. n. (syn. Khawia baltica Szidat, 1941), C. brachycollis Janiszewska, 1953, C. fimbriceps Annenkova-Chlopina, 1919, C. syrdarjensis Skrjabin, 1913, and newly described...
Patterns in the distribution and directional asymmetry of fleas living on the northern white-breasted hedgehog Erinaceus roumanicus
Krzysztof Dudek, Gábor Földvári, Viktória Majláthová, Igor Majláth, Krisztina Rigó, Viktor Molnár, Mária Tóth, Łukasz Jankowiak, Piotr Tryjanowski
Folia Parasitologica 64:026 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.026
Fleas infecting northern white-breasted hedgehogs, Erinaceus roumanicus (Barrett-Hamilton), collected from 2009-2011 in Budapest (Hungary) were studied. A total of 305 white-breasted hedgehogs were captured and 1,251 fleas were collected. The flea community comprised two species, the hedgehog flea Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouche, 1835) and the dog flea Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis, 1826), although the latter was only found on three hedgehogs. Fleas were found on half of the host specimens (51%; n = 156) where their distribution was strongly aggregated. The sex ratio of A. erinacei was biased towards females and was correlated...
Do small samples underestimate mean abundance? It depends on what type of bias we consider
Jenő Reiczigel, Lajos Rózsa
Folia Parasitologica 64:025 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.025
Former authors claimed that, due to parasites' aggregated distribution, small samples underestimate the true population mean abundance. Here we show that this claim is false or true, depending on what is meant by 'underestimate' or, mathematically speaking, how we define 'bias'. The 'how often' and 'on average' views lead to different conclusions because sample mean abundance itself exhibits an aggregated distribution: most often it falls slightly below the true population mean, while sometimes greatly exceeds it. Since the several small negative deviations are compensated by a few greater positive ones, the average of sample means approximates the...
Castosyringophilus meropis sp. n. (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) - a new quill mite species parasitising the world population of Merops apiaster Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Meropidae)
Maciej Skoracki, Martin Hromada, Bozena Sikora
Folia Parasitologica 64:024 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.024
A new species, Castosyringophilus meropis sp. n., found in quills of feathers of the European bee-eater Merops apiaster Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Meropidae) is described. This new species is close to C. claravis Skoracki et Glowska, 2008 and differs, in females, by the presence apunctate coxal fields (vs sparsely punctate in C. claravis) and by the lengths of setae d1 145-180 µm, f2 170-185 µm and ag3 190-215 µm (vs d1 200-220 µm, f2 230-250 µm and ag3 150-170 µm). We present a vast mite material collected from bee-eaters originated...
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats from the south-west region of Poland and the detection of T. gondii DNA in goat milk
Jacek Sroka, Paweł Kusyk, Ewa Bilska-Zaj±c, Jacek Karamon, Jacek Dutkiewicz, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Violetta Zaj±c, Krzysztof Stojecki, Mirosław Różycki, Tomasz Cencek
Folia Parasitologica 64:023 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.023
Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite prevalent in animals and humans worldwide having medical and veterinary importance on account of causing abortion or congenital disease in intermediate hosts, including man. Since T. gondii has already been identified in the milk of goats, Capra aegagrus hircus (Linnaeus), the possibility of acquiring infection by ingesting unpasteurised goat milk should be taken into consideration. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in goat milk. First, 73 goats (females) from 36 farms located in Poland...
Musculoskeletal and nervous systems of the attachment organ in three species of Diplectanum (Monogenea: Dactylogyroidea)
Anatoly A. Petrov, Evgenija V. Dmitrieva, Maryana P. Popyuk, Pavel I. Gerasev, Sergey A. Petrov
Folia Parasitologica 64:022 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.022
The taxonomy of Diplectanum Diesing, 1858, a genus of monopisthocotylean monogeneans, remains unsettled and needs to be revised based on new morphological criteria. Recent studies in monopisthocotyleans have shown that the muscle arrangement in the posterior attachment organ (haptor) differs between congeneric species and can be used as an additional criterion in genus-level taxonomy. To explore the possibility of using the haptoral musculature and nervous system in the taxonomy of Diplectanum, we conducted a detailed confocal-microscopy study of three species of Diplectanum (D. aculeatum Parona et Perugia, 1889, D. sciaenae...
An adult cystidicolid nematode (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) from the subcutaneous tissue around the eye of percupinefish, Diodon nichthemerus Cuvier
Kozue Sasaki, Yoshimi Miyagawa, Itsuki Kiyatake, Kiyoko Onda, Takaomi Ito, Mitsuhiko Asakawa
Folia Parasitologica 64:021 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.021
Three adult nematode specimens, all ovigerous females belonging to the family Cystidicolidae Skryabin, 1946, were found for the first time in the subcutaneous tissue around the eye of the captive porcupinefish Diodon nichthemerus Cuvier at a public aquarium in Osaka, Japan. Because no male was available, these could not be identified to the genus and species. This case highlights the risk of parasitism in aquaculture puffer fish, as these may ingest small shrimp, which probably act as intermediate hosts for the nematode.
Revised classification of the subfamily Leishmaniinae (Trypanosomatidae)
Alexei Y. Kostygov, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
Folia Parasitologica 64:020 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.020
In the present study, we critically revised the recently proposed classification of the subfamily Leishmaniinae Maslov et Lukeą in Jirků et al., 2012. Agreeing with erection of the genus Zelonia Shaw, Camargo et Teixeira in Espinosa et al., 2017 and the subgenus Mundinia Shaw, Camargo et Teixeira in Espinosa et al., 2017 within the genus Leishmania Ross, 1908, we argue that other changes are not well justified. We propose to: (i) raise Paraleishmania Cupolillo, Medina-Acosta, Noyes, Momen et Grimaldi, 2000 to generic rank; (ii) create a new genus Borovskyia gen. n. to accommodate the former Leptomonas barvae...
Observations on non-random distribution of spores of Henneguya spp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) within plasmodia
Jorge C. Eiras, Manuel Cruz, Cristina Cruz, Aurélia Saraiva, Edson A. Adriano, Csaba Székely, Kálmán Molnár
Folia Parasitologica 64:019 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.019
Species of the cnidarian genus Henneguya Thélohan, 1892 (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) are histozoic parasites commonly found in freshwater and, more rarely, in marine fish. The development of these parasites in fish tissues includes the formation of plasmodia within which occurs the sporogony originating spores with two caudal processes, which are usually randomly distributed within the plasmodia. In this report the authors present some cases of non-random distribution of the spores of six species of Henneguya within their plasmodia. Two different patterns of non-random distribution were found based on a literature survey. These patterns...
Cryptosporidium meleagridis and C. baileyi (Apicomplexa) in domestic and wild birds in Algeria
Abd Elkarim Laatamna, Nikola Holubová, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kváč
Folia Parasitologica 64:018 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.018
A total of 345 faecal samples were collected from domestic, captive and wild birds in rural areas, urban areas and a Zoo in Algeria. Samples were screened for the presence of parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 by microscopy and PCR analysis of the small-subunit rRNA (SSU), actin and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 31 samples. Sequence analysis of SSU and actin genes revealed the presence of C. baileyi Current, Upton et Haynes, 1986 in domestic chicken broilers (n = 12), captive ostriches (n = 4) and a wild mallard (n = 1), and C. meleagridis Slavin, 1955...
Reproductive innovation and the recognition of a new genus within the Polystomatidae (Monogenea) infecting chelonian vertebrates
Richard C. Tinsley
Folia Parasitologica 64:017 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.017
Polystomatid monogeneans have a wide diversity of life cycles correlated with the varied ecology and behaviour of their aquatic vertebrate hosts. Typically, transmission involves a swimming infective larva but most hosts are amphibious and invasion is interrupted when hosts leave water. A key life cycle adaptation involves a uterus that, in the most specialised cases, may contain several hundred fully-developed larvae prepared for instant host-to-host transmission. By contrast, one subfamily of the Polystomatidae - the Polystomoidinae, specific to chelonians (freshwater turtles) - has a simplified reproductive system without a uterus. Recently, Polystomoides...
Inactivation of proteolytic enzymes by Eubothrium rugosum (Cestoda) from the gut of burbot Lota lota
Galina I. Izvekova, TatyanaV. Frolova, Evgeny I. Izvekov
Folia Parasitologica 64:016 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.016
Parasitic organisms inhabiting the alimentary canal should permanently resist the destructive action of host digestive enzymes. The intestinal parasites were shown to produce specific protease inhibitors protecting them from proteolysis. However, little is known about this adaptive mechanism in cestodes so far, especially for the tapeworms dwelling inside the fish intestines. Here, we explored the ability to inactivate proteolytic enzymes in the fish tapeworm Eubothrium rugosum (Batsch, 1786) (Bothriocephalidea) parasitising the intestine of wild burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus). The assays were conducted with different concentrations...
A new genus of proteocephalid tapeworm (Cestoda) from the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) in the River Paraná basin, Argentina
Nathalia J. Arredondo, Philippe Vieira Alves, Alicia A. Gil de Pertierra
Folia Parasitologica 64:015 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.015
Synbranchiella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Synbranchiella mabelae sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Monticelliinae) from the intestine of the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, in the River Colastiné, a tributary of the middle River Paraná in Argentina. The new genus is placed in the Monticelliinae because of the cortical position of the genital organs. It differs from all known monticelliine genera by the following combination of characters: (i) scolex robust, with a conical apex, without metascolex; (ii) biloculate suckers with a conspicuous septum separating unequally-sized loculi and a robust non-adherent area, lacking...
Two new species of Tetragonocephalum (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from Pastinachus sephen (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Gulf of Oman
Atabak Roohi Aminjan, Masoumeh Malek
Folia Parasitologica 64:014 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.014
In the present study two new species of Tetragonocephalum Shipley et Hornell, 1905, T. mackenziei sp. n. and T. kazemii sp. n., are described from the spiral intestine of the cowtail stingray, Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål), from the northern coast of the Gulf of Oman. Tetragonocephalum mackenziei is distinguished from the 16 other valid species of Tetragonocephalum by a unique combination of characteristics, i.e. sperm-filled seminal receptacle in immature proglottids, body length (7.7-17.5 mm), body width (213-288 µm), number of proglottids (34-49), number of...
An eight-year survey of the intestinal parasites of carnivores, hoofed mammals, primates, ratites and reptiles in the Ljubljana zoo in Slovenia
Pavel Kvapil, Marjan Kastelic, Alenka Dovč, Eva Bártová, Petr Číľek, Natacha Lima, ©pela ©trus
Folia Parasitologica 64:013 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.013
Problems with parasitic infections and their interspecies transmissions are common in zoological gardens and could pose serious health damage to captive animals. This study presents results of eight-year monitoring of intestinal parasites in animals from Zoo Ljubljana, Slovenia. A total of 741 faecal samples from 40 animal species were collected two to four times per year and examined microscopically. Intestinal parasites were detected in 45% of samples, with detection of helminths (Cestoda, Nematoda - Ascaridida, Enoplida, Strongylida, Oxyurida, Rhabditida and Trichurida) and protists (Apicomplexa and Ciliophora) in 25% and 13% of samples, respectively;...
Gene expression, oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in rabbit ileum experimentally infected with Eimeria intestinalis
Heba M. Abdel-Haleem, Shawky M. Aboelhadid, Thabet Sakran, Gamal El-Shahawy, Huda El-Fayoumi, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki
Folia Parasitologica 64:012 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.012
Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by protists (apicomplexans) of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and is considered to be the most important disease faced by rabbit breeders due to its high morbidity. In the present study, the antioxidant status and changes in apoptosis and in the expression of some genes were quantified in rabbits' ilea following infection with Eimeria intestinalis Cheissin, 1948. Rabbits, orally infected with 1 × 105 sporulated oocysts of E. intestinalis, started to shed oocysts in their faeces on 8 days post infection (dpi) and reached maximum excretion on 10 dpi, with approximately...
Two new species of nematode parasites, Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. (Camallanidae), from marine serranid and haemulid fishes off New Caledonia
Frantiąek Moravec, Jean-Lou Justine
Folia Parasitologica 64:011 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.011
Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of parasitic nematodes are described from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia: Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) from the intestine of the brownspotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. from the intestine of the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae). Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly in possessing a unique structure of the anterior, elevated cloacal lip with a large posterior outgrowth...
Some nematodes, including two new species, from freshwater fishes in the Sudan and Ethiopia
Frantiąek Moravec, Tomáą Scholz
Folia Parasitologica 64:010 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.010
Fourteen species (twelve adult and two larval) of nematodes belonging to the Ascaridoidea, Camallanoidea, Cosmocercoidea, Habronematoidea, Oxyuroidea, Seuratoidea and Trichinelloidea were collected from fishes in the Sudan (River Nile and Atbara Dam Lake), whereas only four species (one adult and three larval) of the Ascaridoidea, Camallanoidea, Dioctophymatoidea and Trichinelloideafrom fishes in Ethiopia (Lake Tana). The Sudanese material also contained two previously unknown species, Cucullanus mormyri sp. n. from Mormyrus caschive Linnaeus (type host), Mormyrus sp. and Marcusenius cyprinoides (Linnaeus) (all Mormyridae),...
New species of Aberrapex Jensen, 2001 (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from eagle rays of the genus Myliobatis Cuvier (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from off Argentina
Adriana Menoret, Leonardo Mutti, Verónica A. Ivanov
Folia Parasitologica 64:009 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.009
Three new species of Aberrapex Jensen, 2001 (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) have been collected from species of Myliobatis Cuvier along the coast of Argentina. Aberrapex ludmilae sp. n. parasitises M. goodei Garman in the San Matías Gulf. This species is unique in a combination of features including the shape and extent of the uterus, scolex size, testis distribution, and by lacking an external seminal vesicle and postovarian vitelline follicles. Aberrapex sanmartini sp. n. from M. goodei in San Blas Bay and A. vitalemuttiorum sp. n. from M. ridens Ruocco, Lucifora, Díaz de Astarloa, Mabragaña...
Three new genera of rhinebothriidean cestodes from stingrays in Southeast Asia
Janine N. Caira, Claire J. Healy, Fernando P.L. Marques, Kirsten Jensen
Folia Parasitologica 64:008 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.008
Three genera of rhinebothriideans, previously referred to as New genus 1, New genus 2 and New genus 4, are erected in the the Anthocephaliidae. New genus 1 is established as Divaricobothrium gen. n., with Divaricobothrium tribelum sp. n. as its type species; Echeneibothrium trifidum Shipley et Hornell, 1906 is transferred to the genus as Divaricobothrium trifidum (Shipley et Hornell, 1906) comb. n. This genus is unique among rhinebothriidean genera in bearing bothridia that are posteriorly deeply divided into two lobes with facial loculi but no apical sucker, and a vagina that extends to near the anterior margin of the proglottid....
Genetic diversity of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Poland: the first report of a haplotype of probable Asian origin
Jacek Karamon, Krzysztof Stojecki, Małgorzata Samorek-Pieróg, Ewa Bilska-Zajac, Mirosław Rózycki, Ewa Chmurzyńska, Jacek Sroka, Jolanta Zdybel, Tomasz Cencek
Folia Parasitologica 64:007 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.007
The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in Poland based on sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genes of worms isolated from red foxes, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus). Overall, 83 adults of E. multilocularis from the same number of foxes in different parts of Poland were used for analysis. Sequences of the three mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b (cob), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad2) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), were analysed. Seventy-four individual biological samples were successfully sequenced....
A novel stage-specific glycosomal nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Trypanosoma cruzi
María de los Milagros Cámara, León Bouvier, Chantal Reigada, Fabio A. Digirolamo, Melisa Sayé, Claudio A. Pereira
Folia Parasitologica 64:006 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.006
Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPK) are key enzymes involved in the intracellular nucleotide maintenance in all living organisms, especially in trypanosomatids which are unable to synthesise purines de novo. Four putative NDPK isoforms were identified in the Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 genome but only two of them were characterised so far. In this work, we studied a novel isoform from T. cruzi called TcNDPK3. This enzyme presents an atypical N-terminal extension similar to the DM10 domains. In T. cruzi, DM10 sequences targeted other NDPK isoform (TcNDPK2) to the cytoskeleton, but TcNDPK3 was localised in glycosomes...
Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in cattle
Aitbay K. Bulashev, Zhanbolat A. Suranshiev, Orken S. Akibekov, Zhanara Zh. Akanova, Gulmira A. Abulgazimova
Folia Parasitologica 64:005 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.005
An IgM murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) was obtained against the excretory-secretory antigen (ES-Ag) of in vitro reared protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786). Western blotting revealed that the MAb recognised a 20.6 kDa protein of this ES-Ag. The MAb was used in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (s-ELISA) for selective sensitisation of the solid phase with the protoscolex-specific protein from its ES-Ag and somatic antigen (S-Ag) to examine serum samples of 108 cows from a cystic echinococcosis (CE) endemic area for specific antibodies and to compare the results with those from necropsies and an indirect ELISA...
A new genus with two new species of lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Cestoda) from the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae),from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia
Kaylee S. Herzog, Kirsten Jensen
Folia Parasitologica 64:004 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.004
A new lecanicephalidean genus is erected for cestodes previously recognised as "New Genus 12" (Polypocephalidae) in a phylogenetic analysis of the interrelationship of members of this order. Examination of the cestode fauna of the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia revealed the existence of specimens representing two new species, consistent in morphology with "New Genus 12." Corollapex gen. n. is unique among the 24 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of an apical organ in the form of an external retractable central disk surrounded...
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) from southeastern France
Cédric Roqueplo, Radu Blaga, Jean-Lou Marié, Isabelle Vallée, Bernard Davoust
Folia Parasitologica 64:003 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.003
Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligate intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. Since meat of wild boar, Sus scrofa (Linnaeus), has been demonstrated to be a potential source of human infection, a careful evaluation of the prevalence of infection with T. gondii in hunted animals is needed to protect public health. In the Var area in southeastern France, we performed a spatio-temporal survey in order to investigate the prevalence of IgG antibodies in wild boars shot by hunters in the Canjuers military camp during two...
Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raw wastewater in Zhengzhou, China
Jianbin Ye, Ji Yan, Jia Xu, Ke Ma, Xuepeng Yang
Folia Parasitologica 64:002 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.002
Contamination of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Laverne, Ravisse, et Modigliani, 1985 in water sources may cause outbreaks of microsporidiosis. To examine the occurrence of E. bieneusi, 108 raw wastewater samples were collected from three wastewater treated plants in Zhengzhou, China. In total, 46 samples were PCR positive for E. bieneusi. A total of 15 ITS genotypes was identified, including ten known genotypes (D, BEB6, I, J, PigEbIX, PigEBITS5, EbpA, Peru6, Peru8, Type IV) and five novel genotypes (HNWW1, HNWW2, HNWW3, HNWW4, HNWW5). Nine genotypes belonged to a known zoonotic...
Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting the intestinal wall of common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in China
Xinhua Liu, Congjie Hua, Qianqian Zhang, Yuanli Zhao, Dong Zhang, Jinyong Zhang
Folia Parasitologica 64:001 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.001
Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. was found in the inner intestinal wall of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, during the investigation of fish parasite fauna in Lake Taibai, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China. The whitish ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 2.9 mm long and 1.7 mm wide, developed in the circular muscle layer of the intestinal wall and produced significant compression into adjacent tissues, but no significant inflammatory responses were observed against this infection. Mature spores are oval in frontal view and lemon-like in lateral and apical view, averaging 10.2-11.2 µm (10.8 ± 0.2 µm)...