Folia Parasitologica, vol. 54 (2007), issue 4

Some aspects of the taxonomy and biology of adult spirurine nematodes parasitic in fishes: a review

František Moravec

Folia Parasitologica 54[4] 239-257 (2007) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2007.033

About 300 species belonging to four superfamilies (Gnathostomatoidea, Habronematoidea, Physalopteroidea and Thelazioidea) of the nematode suborder Spirurina are known as the adult parasites of freshwater, brackish-water and marine fishes. They are placed in four families, of which the Gnathostomatidae, including Echinocephalus with a few species and the monotypic Metaleptus, are parasites of elasmobranchs, whereas Ancyracanthus contains one species in teleosts; the Physalopteridae is represented in fish by four genera, Bulbocephalus, Heliconema, Paraleptus and Proleptus, each with several species in...

Vavraia culicis (Weiser, 1947) Weiser, 1977 revisited: cytological characterisation of a Vavraia culicis-like microsporidium isolated from mosquitoes in Florida and the establishment of Vavraia culicis floridensis subsp. n.

Jiří Vávra, James J. Becnel

Folia Parasitologica 54[4] 259-271 (2007) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2007.034

A brief nomenclatural history of Vavraia culicis (Weiser, 1947), the type species for the genus Vavraia Weiser, 1977, is presented together with a detailed description of the cytological and ultrastructural characteristics of a Vavraia culicis-like microsporidian species isolated from Aedes albopictus (Scuse) in Florida. This "Florida isolate", is the only known isolate of a species of the genus Vavraia from mosquitoes propagated in laboratory culture. Although the Florida isolate has been used under the name Vavraia culicis in several molecular phylogeny and host-parasite studies, it has not been structurally...

New data on Soricimyxum fegati (Myxozoa) including analysis of its phylogenetic position inferred from the SSU rRNA gene sequence

Iva Dyková, Tomáš Tyml, Ivan Fiala, Jiří Lom

Folia Parasitologica 54[4] 272-276 (2007) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2007.035

A myxosporean species found to develop in the liver of 10 out of 24 common shrews, Sorex araneus L., caught in South Bohemia, Czech Republic, was identified as Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007, the unique representative of the genus and the first myxosporean species known to develop from plasmodia to spores in a terrestrial mammal. The original description of this species, based on fixed material, is supplemented with new data based on fresh material and with partial sequence of SSU rDNA (GenBank Acc. No. EU232760). Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA revealed that S. fegati is closely related to myxosporeans...

Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA gene from the piscine diplomonad Spironucleus torosus (Diplomonadida: Hexamitinae)

Anders Jørgensen, Anders Alfjorden, Kristin Henriksen, Erik Sterud

Folia Parasitologica 54[4] 277-282 (2007) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2007.036

Previous studies have recorded Spironucleus torosus Poynton et Morrison, 1990 from several species of gadoid fishes, including the only freshwater gadoid, the burbot Lota lota (L.). Two morphologically different isolates of S. torosus have been described (elongate and pyriform). Both have been found in saltwater, while only the elongate has been found in freshwater. To address the conspecificity of the two morphs of S. torosus, and to identify the source of S. torosus in burbot in Norway, we have sequenced the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene from 43 isolates of S. torosus from six species of gadoid...

Four new myxozoans (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) from intertidal fishes along the south coast of Africa

Cecilé C. Reed, Linda Basson, Liesl L. Van As, Iva Dyková

Folia Parasitologica 54[4] 283-292 (2007) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2007.037

Current records of marine myxozoans from the coast of Africa are limited to the descriptions of 52 species from mostly Senegal, with a few from Tunisia and southern Africa. Between 1998 and 2000 several intertidal fishes from the southern Cape coast of South Africa were examined for the presence of myxozoan infections. Three new species, Ceratomyxa dehoopi sp. n., C. cottoidii sp. n. and C. honckenii sp. n. were identified from the gall bladders of Clinus superciliosus L., C. cottoides Valenciennes and Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch), respectively. A fourth new species Henneguya clini sp. n. was also...

Redescription of Metabronema magnum (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae), a swimbladder parasite of the carangid fish Gnathanodon speciosus off New Caledonia

František Moravec, Jean-Lou Justine

Folia Parasitologica 54[4] 293-300 (2007) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2007.038

The cystidicolid nematode Metabronema magnum (Taylor, 1925) is redescribed from specimens collected from the swimbladder of the fish (golden trevally) Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål) (Carangidae, Perciformes) off New Caledonia, South Pacific (a new geographical record). The light and scanning electron microscopical examination made it possible to study in detail the morphology of this so far little-known species. Its pseudolabia were found to possess distinct anterior protrusions (protuberances), sublabia are absent, only four cephalic papillae are present, deirids are bifurcated, and the male possesses six pairs of postanal papillae....

Glycolytic and chitinolytic activities of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) from diverse ecological habitats

Raymond L. Jacobson, Liora Studentsky, Yosef Schlein

Folia Parasitologica 54[4] 301-309 (2007) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2007.039

The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, 1786, the vector of Leishmania major Yakimoff et Schokhor, 1914, is found in desert areas where sugars are scarce but also in habitats that abound in sugar sources. The sand flies require sugar meals from plant sources for their energy requirements and to hydrolyze these complex sugars, they need a repertoire of glycosidases. We presumed that there are differences in the levels of glycosidase activities in flies from such habitats and also assumed that they may be instrumental in modulating the flies' susceptibility to L. major infections. Phlebotomus papatasi originating from diverse...

Detection of Anaplasma DNA in Ixodes ricinus ticks: pitfalls

Silvie Šikutová, Ivo Rudolf, Maryna Golovchenko, Nataliia Rudenko, Libor Grubhoffer, Zdeněk Hubálek

Folia Parasitologica 54[4] 310-312 (2007) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2007.040

A total of 150 nymphal Ixodes ricinus (L., 1758) (Acari: Ixodidae) from the Czech Republic were examined for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Foggie, 1949) Dumler et al., 2001 by PCR using EHR521/747 primers: 22 of 50 pools were positive (minimum prevalence, 14.7%). However, sequencing of the PCR products did not show complete homology with A. phagocytophilum (91%) while the closest relationship (95%) was found to "Candidatus Ehrlichia walkerii". The results indicate a need for care in interpretation of Anaplasma PCR results and for PCR optimization for detecting A. phagocytophilum in ticks.

Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in small mammals from the Ardennes Region, France

Eve Afonso, Marie-Lazarine Poulle, Mélissa Lemoine, Isabelle Villena, Dominique Aubert, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont

Folia Parasitologica 54[4] 313-314 (2007) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2007.041

Serum samples from 218 small mammals trapped in forest and grassland in the Ardennes region (North-eastern France) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Using the modified agglutination test, positive results were found in 4/92 Apodemus sp., 3/64 Clethrionomys glareolus, 0/26 Microtus agrestis, 0/4 Micromys minutus, 3/5 Sorex sp., 2/9 Arvicola terrestris, and 7/18 Talpa europaea. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from the heart of seropositive individuals after bioassay in mice. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in large fossorial mammals living in grassland than in small...