Folia Parasitologica, vol. 59 (2012), issue 1

Folia Parasitologica 59[1] 43-52 (2012) | 10.14411/fp.2012.007

Histochemical demonstration of five enzymes\' activities in Macrogyrodactylus clarii (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from the catfish Clarias gariepinus

Safaa Zaky Arafa, El-Sayed Kasem Abd El-Hady, Samir Ahmed El-Abbassy
Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

Histochemical techniques were applied to whole mounts, to study the distribution of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase and glucose-6-phosphatase in the organs and tissues of a viviparous monogenean, Macrogyrodactylus clarii Gussev, 1961, from the gills of the North African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) in Egypt. The following organs and tissues were studied: head region, anterior adhesive glands, mouth region, pharynx, intestine, testis, vesicula seminalis, male accessory gland, male accessory reservoir, copulatory organ, receptaculum seminis, egg-cell forming region, embryonic cells, excretory system, nerve cells, haptor, muscle fibres and subtegumental cell bodies (cytons). The enzymes showed marked differences in their activities among the studied organs and tissues. Alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities were detected in many organs and tissues, while the activities of adenosine triphosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase and glucose-6-phosphatase were restricted to a few organs. Although no positive reaction for any enzyme was observed in the anterior adhesive gland cells, a positive reaction for acid phosphatase was detected in the anterior adhesive areas. All enzymes showed marked activity in the digestive and excretory systems. The distribution of the enzymes in the tissues and organs of M. clarii is compared with those of other monogeneans, including other gyrodactylids parasitizing the same host fish. Some possible functions of the enzymes are discussed.

Keywords: Macrogyrodactylus clarii, Clarias gariepinus, histochemistry, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase

Received: September 26, 2011; Accepted: November 8, 2011; Published: February 23, 2012


References

  1. Abd E l -Hady E.K., Arafa S.Z., El -Naggar M.M., El -Ab bassy S.A. 2012: Demonstration of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities in the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus rysavyi. Egypt. J. Zool. (In press.)
  2. Arafa S.Z. 1999: Biological studies on some monogenean parasites of the teleost Clarias gariepinus in Dakahlia province. Ph.D. thesis, Zoology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, 350 pp
  3. Arafa S.Z., El -Naggar M.M., El -Abbassy S.A. 2009: Mode of attachment and histopathological effects of Macrogyrodactylus clarii, a monogenean gill parasite of the catfish Clarias gariepinus, with a report on host response. Acta Parasitol. 54: 103-112 Go to original source...
  4. Arafa S.Z., El -Naggar M.M., El -Abbassy S.A., Stewart M.T., Halton D.W. 2007: Neuromusculature of Gyrodactylus rysavyi, a monogenean gill and skin parasite of the catfish Clarias gariepinus. Parasitol. Int. 56: 297-307 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  5. Buchmann K. 1988: Feeding of Pseudodactylogyrus bini (Monogenea) from Anguilla anguilla. Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathol. 8: 79-81
  6. Buchmann K. 1998: Histochemical characteristics of Gyrodactylus derjavini parasitizing the fins of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Folia Parasitol. 45: 312-318 Go to PubMed...
  7. Buchmann K., Bresciani J. 1997: Parasitic infections in pond reared rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Denmark. Dis. Aquat. Org. 28: 125-138 Go to original source...
  8. Buchmann K., Bresciani J. 1998: Microenvironment of Gyrodactylus derjavini on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: association between mucous cell density in skin and site selection. Parasitol. Res. 84: 17-24 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  9. Buchmann K., Koie M., Prento P. 1987: The nutrition of the gill parasitic monogenean Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae. Parasitol. Res. 73: 532-537 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  10. Buchmann K., Mellergaard S. 1988: Histochemical demonstration of the inhibitory effect of Nuvan and Neguvon on cholinesterase activity in Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae (Monogenea). Acta Vet. Scand. 29: 51-55 Go to PubMed...
  11. Buchmann K., Uldal A. 1997: Gyrodactylus derjavini infections in four salmonids: comparative host susceptibility and site selection of parasites. Dis. Aquat. Org. 28: 201-209 Go to original source...
  12. Cable J., Marks N.J., Halton D.W., Shaw C., Johnston C.F., Tinsley R.C., Gannicott A.M. 1996: Cholinergic, serotoninergic and peptidergic components of the nervous system of Discocotyle sagittata (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea). Int. J. Parasitol. 26: 1357-1367 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  13. Cone D.K., Odense P.H. 1984: Pathology of five species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea). Can. J. Zool. 62: 1084-1088 Go to original source...
  14. Delcacho E., Causape C., Sanchez -Acedo C., Quilez J. 1996: Cytochemical study of germinal membrane of Echinococcus granulosus cyst. Vet. Parasitol. 62: 101-106 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  15. El -Aaser A.A., Hassanein S.M. 1975: A new direct lead technique for histochemical demonstration of alkaline phosphatase activity. Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 26: 105-110 Go to PubMed...
  16. El -Abbassy S.A. 2001: Biological and histochemical studies on some monogenean parasites of the catfish Clarias gariepinus inhabiting Nile Delta waters. M.Sc. Thesis, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt, 150 pp
  17. El -Naggar M.M. 1993: Scanning electron microscope observations on the head lobes and haptor of the monogenean Macrogyrodactylus clarii Gussev, 1961. J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool. 10: 143-155
  18. El -Naggar M.M., Arafa S.Z., El -Abbassy S.A., Kearn G.C. 2001a: Chaetotaxy of the monogeneans Macrogyrodactylus clarii and M. congolensis from the gills and skin of the catfish Clarias gariepinus in Egypt, with a note on argentophilic elements in the nervous system. Folia Parasitol. 48: 201-208 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  19. El -Naggar M.M., Arafa S.Z., El -Abbassy S.A., Stewart M.T., Halton D.W. 2007: Neuromusculature of Macrogyrodactylus congolensis, a monogenean skin parasite of the Nile catfish Clarias gariepinus. Parasitol. Res. 100: 265-279 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  20. El -Naggar M.M., Arafa S.Z., Stewart M.T., El -Abbassy S.A., Halton D.W. 2004: Neuromusculature of Macrogyrodactylus clarii, a monogenean gill parasite of the Nile catfish Clarias gariepinus in Egypt. Parasitol. Res. 94: 163-175 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  21. El -Naggar M.M., Cable J. 2007: Ultrastructural observations on the elusive subtegumental cells of the viviparous gill monogenean, Macrogyrodactylus clarii. Parasitol. Res. 101: 9-17 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  22. El -Naggar M.M., El -Naggar A.M., El -Abbassy S.A. 2001b: Microhabitat and movement of the viviparous monogeneans Gyrodactylus alberti, Macrogyrodactylus clarii and M. congolensis from the Nile catfish Clarias gariepinus. J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool. 35: 169-187
  23. El -Naggar M.M., Kearn G.C., Hagras A.E., Arafa S.Z. 1999: On some anatomical features of Macrogyrodactylus congolen arous monogenean ectoparasite of the catfish Clarias sis, a vivip gariepinus from Nile water. J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool. 29: 1-24
  24. El -Naggar M.M., Serag H.M. 1987: Redescription of Macrogyrodactylus clarii Gussev 1961, a monogenean gill parasite of Clarias lazera in Egypt. Arab Gulf J. Sci. Res., Agric. Biol. Sci. 5: 257-271
  25. Farooq R., Farooqi U.K. 1984: Histochemical localization of phosphomonoesterases in Avitellina lahorea Woodland, 1927 (Cestoda: Anoplocephalida). J. Helminthol. 58: 169-173 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  26. Hagras A.E., El -Naggar M.M., Kearn G.C., Arafa S.Z. 1999: Monthly occurrence, seasonal population dynamics and distribution of four monogeneans on the catfish Clarias gariepinus in Dakahlia province, lower Egypt. J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool. 29: 49-66
  27. Halton D.W. 1967: Studies on phosphatase activity in Trematoda. J. Parasitol. 53: 46-54 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  28. Halton D.W., Jennings J.B. 1964: Demonstration of the nervous system of the monogenetic trematode Diplozoon paradoxum Nordmann by the indoxyl acetate method for esterases. Nature 202: 510-511 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  29. Halton D.W., Morris G.P. 1969: Occurrence of cholinesterase and ciliated sensory structures in a fish gill fluke, Diclidophora merlangi (Trematoda: Monogenea). Z. Parasitenkd. 33: 21-30 Go to original source...
  30. Harris P.D. 1988: Changes in the site specificity of Gyrodactylus turnbulli Harris, 1986 (Monogenea) during infections of individual guppies (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). Can. J. Zool. 66: 2854-2857 Go to original source...
  31. Humiczewska M. 2002: Some specific and non-specific phosphatases of the sporocyst of Fasciola hepatica. II. Enzymes associated with the membrane transport. Folia Parasitol. 49: 221-226 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  32. Kearn G.C. 1963: Feeding in some monogenean skin parasites: Entobdella solea on Solae solae and Acanthocotyle sp. on Raia clavata. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. UK 43: 749-766 Go to original source...
  33. Krupa P.L., Cousineau G.H., Bal A.K. 1968: Ultrastructural and histochemical observations on the body wall of Cryptocotyle lingua rediae (Trematoda). J. Parasitol. 54: 900-908 Go to original source...
  34. Llewellyn J. 1960: Amphibdellid (monogenean) parasites of electric rays (Torpedinidae). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 39: 561-589 Go to original source...
  35. Lyons K.M. 1970: The fine structure and function of the adult epidermis of two skin parasitic monogeneans, Entobdella soleae and Acanthocotyle elegans. Parasitology 60: 39-52 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  36. Rahemo Z.I.F., Gorgees N.S. 1987: Studies on the nervous system of Polystoma integerrimum as revealed by acetylthiocholine activity. Parasitol. Res. 73: 234-239 Go to original source...
  37. Reda E.S., Arafa S.Z. 2002: Cholinergic components of the nervous system of the monogenean gill parasites, Pseudodactylogyrus bini and P. anguillae from the eel Anguilla anguilla in Nile Delta waters. Egypt. J. Zool. 38: 41-54
  38. Richards G.R., Chubb J.C. 1996: Host response to initial and challenge infections, following treatment, of Gyrodactylus bullatarudis and G. turnbulli (Monogenea) on the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Parasitol. Res. 82: 242-247 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  39. Schubert P., Komp W., Kreutzberg G.W. 1979: Correlation of 5'-nucleotidase activity and selective transneuronal transfer of adenosine in the hippocampus. Brain Res. 168: 419-424 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  40. Siddiqui A.A., Kulkarni T. 1987: Histochemical distribution of phosphatases in the tissue of Mizellus indicus Jain (1957), (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea). Riv. Parassitol. 4: 197-200
  41. Smyth J.D., Halton D.W. 1983: The Physiology of Trematodes (2nd Edition). Cambridige University Press, New York, xiii + 446 pp
  42. Tice L., Barnett R. 1962: Fine structural localization of G-6-pase in rat liver. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 10: 754 Go to original source...
  43. Uusitalo R.J. 1981: 5'-Nucleotidase activity in lymphocytes. Histochem. J. 13: 525-534 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  44. Uusitalo R.J., Karnovsky M.J. 1977: Surface localization of 5'-nucleotidase on the mouse lymphocyte. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25: 87-96 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  45. Vatankhah A., Assma M., Vatankhah G.R., Shokrgoza M.A. 2003: Immunochemical characterization of alkaline phosphatase from the fluid of sterile and fertile Echinococcus granulosus cysts. Parasitol. Res. 90: 372-376 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  46. Wachstein M., Meisel E. 1957: A comparative study of enzymatic staining reactions in the rat kidney with necrobiosis induced by ischemia and nephrotoxic agents (Mercuhydrin and DL-Serine). J. Histochem. Cytochem. 5: 204- 220 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...
  47. Zurawski T.H., Mousley A., Mair G.R., Brennan G.P., Maule A.G., Gelnar M., Halton D.W. 2001: Immunomicroscopical observa tions on the nervous system of adult Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Monogenea: Diplozoidae). Int. J. Parasitol. 31: 783-793 Go to original source... Go to PubMed...