Folia Parasitologica, vol. 64 (2017)

Observations on non-random distribution of spores of Henneguya spp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) within plasmodia

Jorge C. Eiras, Manuel Cruz, Cristina Cruz, Aurélia Saraiva, Edson A. Adriano, Csaba Székely, Kálmán Molnár

Folia Parasitologica 64:019 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.019

Species of the cnidarian genus Henneguya Thélohan, 1892 (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) are histozoic parasites commonly found in freshwater and, more rarely, in marine fish. The development of these parasites in fish tissues includes the formation of plasmodia within which occurs the sporogony originating spores with two caudal processes, which are usually randomly distributed within the plasmodia. In this report the authors present some cases of non-random distribution of the spores of six species of Henneguya within their plasmodia. Two different patterns of non-random distribution were found based on a literature survey. These patterns...

Cryptosporidium meleagridis and C. baileyi (Apicomplexa) in domestic and wild birds in Algeria

Abd Elkarim Laatamna, Nikola Holubová, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kváč

Folia Parasitologica 64:018 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.018

A total of 345 faecal samples were collected from domestic, captive and wild birds in rural areas, urban areas and a Zoo in Algeria. Samples were screened for the presence of parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 by microscopy and PCR analysis of the small-subunit rRNA (SSU), actin and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 31 samples. Sequence analysis of SSU and actin genes revealed the presence of C. baileyi Current, Upton et Haynes, 1986 in domestic chicken broilers (n = 12), captive ostriches (n = 4) and a wild mallard (n = 1), and C. meleagridis Slavin, 1955...

Reproductive innovation and the recognition of a new genus within the Polystomatidae (Monogenea) infecting chelonian vertebrates

Richard C. Tinsley

Folia Parasitologica 64:017 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.017

Polystomatid monogeneans have a wide diversity of life cycles correlated with the varied ecology and behaviour of their aquatic vertebrate hosts. Typically, transmission involves a swimming infective larva but most hosts are amphibious and invasion is interrupted when hosts leave water. A key life cycle adaptation involves a uterus that, in the most specialised cases, may contain several hundred fully-developed larvae prepared for instant host-to-host transmission. By contrast, one subfamily of the Polystomatidae - the Polystomoidinae, specific to chelonians (freshwater turtles) - has a simplified reproductive system without a uterus. Recently, Polystomoides...

Inactivation of proteolytic enzymes by Eubothrium rugosum (Cestoda) from the gut of burbot Lota lota

Galina I. Izvekova, TatyanaV. Frolova, Evgeny I. Izvekov

Folia Parasitologica 64:016 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.016

Parasitic organisms inhabiting the alimentary canal should permanently resist the destructive action of host digestive enzymes. The intestinal parasites were shown to produce specific protease inhibitors protecting them from proteolysis. However, little is known about this adaptive mechanism in cestodes so far, especially for the tapeworms dwelling inside the fish intestines. Here, we explored the ability to inactivate proteolytic enzymes in the fish tapeworm Eubothrium rugosum (Batsch, 1786) (Bothriocephalidea) parasitising the intestine of wild burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus). The assays were conducted with different concentrations...

A new genus of proteocephalid tapeworm (Cestoda) from the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) in the River Paraná basin, Argentina

Nathalia J. Arredondo, Philippe Vieira Alves, Alicia A. Gil de Pertierra

Folia Parasitologica 64:015 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.015

Synbranchiella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Synbranchiella mabelae sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Monticelliinae) from the intestine of the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, in the River Colastiné, a tributary of the middle River Paraná in Argentina. The new genus is placed in the Monticelliinae because of the cortical position of the genital organs. It differs from all known monticelliine genera by the following combination of characters: (i) scolex robust, with a conical apex, without metascolex; (ii) biloculate suckers with a conspicuous septum separating unequally-sized loculi and a robust non-adherent area, lacking...

Two new species of Tetragonocephalum (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from Pastinachus sephen (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Gulf of Oman

Atabak Roohi Aminjan, Masoumeh Malek

Folia Parasitologica 64:014 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.014

In the present study two new species of Tetragonocephalum Shipley et Hornell, 1905, T. mackenziei sp. n. and T. kazemii sp. n., are described from the spiral intestine of the cowtail stingray, Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål), from the northern coast of the Gulf of Oman. Tetragonocephalum mackenziei is distinguished from the 16 other valid species of Tetragonocephalum by a unique combination of characteristics, i.e. sperm-filled seminal receptacle in immature proglottids, body length (7.7-17.5 mm), body width (213-288 µm), number of proglottids (34-49), number of...

An eight-year survey of the intestinal parasites of carnivores, hoofed mammals, primates, ratites and reptiles in the Ljubljana zoo in Slovenia

Pavel Kvapil, Marjan Kastelic, Alenka Dovč, Eva Bártová, Petr Čížek, Natacha Lima, Špela Štrus

Folia Parasitologica 64:013 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.013

Problems with parasitic infections and their interspecies transmissions are common in zoological gardens and could pose serious health damage to captive animals. This study presents results of eight-year monitoring of intestinal parasites in animals from Zoo Ljubljana, Slovenia. A total of 741 faecal samples from 40 animal species were collected two to four times per year and examined microscopically. Intestinal parasites were detected in 45% of samples, with detection of helminths (Cestoda, Nematoda - Ascaridida, Enoplida, Strongylida, Oxyurida, Rhabditida and Trichurida) and protists (Apicomplexa and Ciliophora) in 25% and 13% of samples, respectively;...

Gene expression, oxidative stress and apoptotic changes in rabbit ileum experimentally infected with Eimeria intestinalis

Heba M. Abdel-Haleem, Shawky M. Aboelhadid, Thabet Sakran, Gamal El-Shahawy, Huda El-Fayoumi, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki

Folia Parasitologica 64:012 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.012

Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by protists (apicomplexans) of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875 and is considered to be the most important disease faced by rabbit breeders due to its high morbidity. In the present study, the antioxidant status and changes in apoptosis and in the expression of some genes were quantified in rabbits' ilea following infection with Eimeria intestinalis Cheissin, 1948. Rabbits, orally infected with 1 × 105 sporulated oocysts of E. intestinalis, started to shed oocysts in their faeces on 8 days post infection (dpi) and reached maximum excretion on 10 dpi, with approximately...

Two new species of nematode parasites, Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. (Camallanidae), from marine serranid and haemulid fishes off New Caledonia

František Moravec, Jean-Lou Justine

Folia Parasitologica 64:011 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.011

Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of parasitic nematodes are described from marine perciform fishes off New Caledonia: Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. (Cucullanidae) from the intestine of the brownspotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sinespinis sp. n. from the intestine of the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae). Cucullanus epinepheli sp. n. differs from its congeners mainly in possessing a unique structure of the anterior, elevated cloacal lip with a large posterior outgrowth...

Some nematodes, including two new species, from freshwater fishes in the Sudan and Ethiopia

František Moravec, Tomáš Scholz

Folia Parasitologica 64:010 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.010

Fourteen species (twelve adult and two larval) of nematodes belonging to the Ascaridoidea, Camallanoidea, Cosmocercoidea, Habronematoidea, Oxyuroidea, Seuratoidea and Trichinelloidea were collected from fishes in the Sudan (River Nile and Atbara Dam Lake), whereas only four species (one adult and three larval) of the Ascaridoidea, Camallanoidea, Dioctophymatoidea and Trichinelloideafrom fishes in Ethiopia (Lake Tana). The Sudanese material also contained two previously unknown species, Cucullanus mormyri sp. n. from Mormyrus caschive Linnaeus (type host), Mormyrus sp. and Marcusenius cyprinoides (Linnaeus) (all Mormyridae),...

New species of Aberrapex Jensen, 2001 (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from eagle rays of the genus Myliobatis Cuvier (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from off Argentina

Adriana Menoret, Leonardo Mutti, Verónica A. Ivanov

Folia Parasitologica 64:009 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.009

Three new species of Aberrapex Jensen, 2001 (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) have been collected from species of Myliobatis Cuvier along the coast of Argentina. Aberrapex ludmilae sp. n. parasitises M. goodei Garman in the San Matías Gulf. This species is unique in a combination of features including the shape and extent of the uterus, scolex size, testis distribution, and by lacking an external seminal vesicle and postovarian vitelline follicles. Aberrapex sanmartini sp. n. from M. goodei in San Blas Bay and A. vitalemuttiorum sp. n. from M. ridens Ruocco, Lucifora, Díaz de Astarloa, Mabragaña...

Three new genera of rhinebothriidean cestodes from stingrays in Southeast Asia

Janine N. Caira, Claire J. Healy, Fernando P.L. Marques, Kirsten Jensen

Folia Parasitologica 64:008 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.008

Three genera of rhinebothriideans, previously referred to as New genus 1, New genus 2 and New genus 4, are erected in the the Anthocephaliidae. New genus 1 is established as Divaricobothrium gen. n., with Divaricobothrium tribelum sp. n. as its type species; Echeneibothrium trifidum Shipley et Hornell, 1906 is transferred to the genus as Divaricobothrium trifidum (Shipley et Hornell, 1906) comb. n. This genus is unique among rhinebothriidean genera in bearing bothridia that are posteriorly deeply divided into two lobes with facial loculi but no apical sucker, and a vagina that extends to near the anterior margin of the proglottid....

Genetic diversity of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Poland: the first report of a haplotype of probable Asian origin

Jacek Karamon, Krzysztof Stojecki, Małgorzata Samorek-Pieróg, Ewa Bilska-Zajac, Mirosław Rózycki, Ewa Chmurzyńska, Jacek Sroka, Jolanta Zdybel, Tomasz Cencek

Folia Parasitologica 64:007 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.007

The aim of the present study was to estimate the genetic diversity of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in Poland based on sequence analysis of the mitochondrial genes of worms isolated from red foxes, Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus). Overall, 83 adults of E. multilocularis from the same number of foxes in different parts of Poland were used for analysis. Sequences of the three mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b (cob), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad2) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), were analysed. Seventy-four individual biological samples were successfully sequenced....

A novel stage-specific glycosomal nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Trypanosoma cruzi

María de los Milagros Cámara, León Bouvier, Chantal Reigada, Fabio A. Digirolamo, Melisa Sayé, Claudio A. Pereira

Folia Parasitologica 64:006 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.006

Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPK) are key enzymes involved in the intracellular nucleotide maintenance in all living organisms, especially in trypanosomatids which are unable to synthesise purines de novo. Four putative NDPK isoforms were identified in the Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 genome but only two of them were characterised so far. In this work, we studied a novel isoform from T. cruzi called TcNDPK3. This enzyme presents an atypical N-terminal extension similar to the DM10 domains. In T. cruzi, DM10 sequences targeted other NDPK isoform (TcNDPK2) to the cytoskeleton, but TcNDPK3 was localised in glycosomes...

Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in cattle

Aitbay K. Bulashev, Zhanbolat A. Suranshiev, Orken S. Akibekov, Zhanara Zh. Akanova, Gulmira A. Abulgazimova

Folia Parasitologica 64:005 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.005

An IgM murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) was obtained against the excretory-secretory antigen (ES-Ag) of in vitro reared protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786). Western blotting revealed that the MAb recognised a 20.6 kDa protein of this ES-Ag. The MAb was used in sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (s-ELISA) for selective sensitisation of the solid phase with the protoscolex-specific protein from its ES-Ag and somatic antigen (S-Ag) to examine serum samples of 108 cows from a cystic echinococcosis (CE) endemic area for specific antibodies and to compare the results with those from necropsies and an indirect ELISA...

A new genus with two new species of lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Cestoda) from the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae),from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia

Kaylee S. Herzog, Kirsten Jensen

Folia Parasitologica 64:004 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.004

A new lecanicephalidean genus is erected for cestodes previously recognised as "New Genus 12" (Polypocephalidae) in a phylogenetic analysis of the interrelationship of members of this order. Examination of the cestode fauna of the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia revealed the existence of specimens representing two new species, consistent in morphology with "New Genus 12." Corollapex gen. n. is unique among the 24 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of an apical organ in the form of an external retractable central disk surrounded...

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) from southeastern France

Cédric Roqueplo, Radu Blaga, Jean-Lou Marié, Isabelle Vallée, Bernard Davoust

Folia Parasitologica 64:003 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.003

Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligate intracellular, parasitic protozoan within the phylum Apicomplexa that causes toxoplasmosis in mammalian hosts (including humans) and birds. Since meat of wild boar, Sus scrofa (Linnaeus), has been demonstrated to be a potential source of human infection, a careful evaluation of the prevalence of infection with T. gondii in hunted animals is needed to protect public health. In the Var area in southeastern France, we performed a spatio-temporal survey in order to investigate the prevalence of IgG antibodies in wild boars shot by hunters in the Canjuers military camp during two...

Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi in raw wastewater in Zhengzhou, China

Jianbin Ye, Ji Yan, Jia Xu, Ke Ma, Xuepeng Yang

Folia Parasitologica 64:002 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.002

Contamination of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Laverne, Ravisse, et Modigliani, 1985 in water sources may cause outbreaks of microsporidiosis. To examine the occurrence of E. bieneusi, 108 raw wastewater samples were collected from three wastewater treated plants in Zhengzhou, China. In total, 46 samples were PCR positive for E. bieneusi. A total of 15 ITS genotypes was identified, including ten known genotypes (D, BEB6, I, J, PigEbIX, PigEBITS5, EbpA, Peru6, Peru8, Type IV) and five novel genotypes (HNWW1, HNWW2, HNWW3, HNWW4, HNWW5). Nine genotypes belonged to a known zoonotic...

Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infecting the intestinal wall of common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus in China

Xinhua Liu, Congjie Hua, Qianqian Zhang, Yuanli Zhao, Dong Zhang, Jinyong Zhang

Folia Parasitologica 64:001 (2017) | 10.14411/fp.2017.001

Myxobolus taibaiensis sp. n. was found in the inner intestinal wall of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, during the investigation of fish parasite fauna in Lake Taibai, located in the middle reach of the Yangtze River, China. The whitish ellipsoidal plasmodia, up to 2.9 mm long and 1.7 mm wide, developed in the circular muscle layer of the intestinal wall and produced significant compression into adjacent tissues, but no significant inflammatory responses were observed against this infection. Mature spores are oval in frontal view and lemon-like in lateral and apical view, averaging 10.2-11.2 µm (10.8 ± 0.2 µm)...