Folia Parasitologica, vol. 51 (2004), issue 2/3

Advances in the knowledge of amphizoic amoebae infecting fish

Iva Dyková, Jiří Lom

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 81-97 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.014

Free-living amoebae infecting freshwater and marine fish include those described thus far as agents of fish diseases, associated with other disease conditions and isolated from organs of asymptomatic fish. This survey is based on information from the literature as well as on our own data on strains isolated from freshwater and marine fish. Evidence is provided for diverse fish-infecting amphizoic amoebae. Recent progress in the understanding of the biology of Neoparamoeba spp., agents responsible for significant direct losses in Atlantic salmon and turbot industry, is presented. Specific requirements of diagnostic procedures detecting amoebic...

Haemogregarina bigemina (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) - past, present and future

Angela J. Davies, Nico J. Smit, Polly M. Hayes, Alan M. Seddon, David Wertheim

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 99-108 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.015

This paper reviews past, current and likely future research on the fish haemogregarine, Haemogregarina bigemina Laveran et Mesnil, 1901. Recorded from 96 species of fishes, across 70 genera and 34 families, this broad distribution for H. bigemina is questioned. In its type hosts and other fishes, the parasite undergoes intraerythrocytic binary fission, finally forming mature paired gamonts. An intraleukocytic phase is also reported, but not from the type hosts. This paper asks whether stages from the white cell series are truly H. bigemina. A future aim should be to compare the molecular constitution of so-called H. bigemina...

The Capsalidae (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea): a review of diversity, classification and phylogeny with a note about species complexes

Ian D. Whittington

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 109-122 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.016

The Capsalidae are monogeneans parasitizing 'skin', fins and gills of marine fishes. Some capsalids are pathogenic to cultivated fish and a few have caused epizootic events. It is a cosmopolitan family with broad host associations (elasmobranchs and teleosts, including sturgeons). Approximately 200 capsalid species are placed in nine subfamilies and 44-46 genera, some of which are well known (Benedenia, Capsala, Entobdella, Neobenedenia). Sturgeons host two capsalid species (Nitzschiinae) and 15 species in five genera are reliably reported from elasmobranchs. The combination of ancient (shark, ray, sturgeon) and modern (teleost)...

A review of Dendromonocotyle (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the skin of stingrays and their control in public aquaria

Leslie A. Chisholm, Ian D. Whittington, Andreas B.P. Fischer

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 123-130 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.017

Dendromonocotyle species (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) are the only monocotylids to parasitize the skin of chondrichthyan hosts. Currently 11 species are recorded from the skin of ray species in the Dasyatidae, Myliobatidae and Urolophidae. There have been increasing reports of Dendromonocotyle outbreaks on rays kept in public aquaria. This paper provides a broad review of Dendromonocotyle that should assist taxonomists and aquarists with species identification and help decisions on potential control methods for Dendromonocotyle infections. The taxonomy and host-specificity of Dendromonocotyle are discussed and a key...

Larvae of gryporhynchid cestodes (Cyclophyllidea) from fish: a review

Tomáš Scholz, Rodney A. Bray, Roman Kuchta, Radmila Řepová

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 131-152 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.018

Larvae (metacestodes) of tapeworms of the cyclophyllidean family Gryporhynchidae (previously included in the Dilepididae) occur in different internal organs of fresh- and brackish water fish (110 fish species of 27 families in 12 orders reported), which serve as the second intermediate hosts. The species composition, spectrum of fish hosts, sites of infection, and geographical distribution of gryporhynchids recorded from fish are reviewed here on the basis of literary data and examination of extensive material from helminthological collections. Metacestodes of the following genera have been found in fish: Amirthalingamia Bray, 1974 (1 species),...

Defeating diplostomoid dangers in USA catfish aquaculture

Robin M. Overstreet, Stephen S. Curran

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 153-165 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.019

Diplostomoid digenean metacercariae have caused widescale mortalities of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), at aquaculture farms in Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas, USA. Originally, based on a tentative diagnosis, the industry considered the primary harmful agent to be an introduced species from Europe, Bolbophorus confusus (Krause, 1914), frequently reported from the American white pelican, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin. Our group has now shown, using ITS 1-2 plus three more-conservative gene fragments, that two sympatric species of Bolbophorus exist in the American white pelican. One, B. damnificus...

A microsporidian parasite of the genus Spraguea in the nervous tissues of the Japanese anglerfish Lophius litulon

Mark A. Freeman, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Kazuo Ogawa

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 167-176 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.020

In the present study, a high percentage of Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon (Jordan, 1902), contained a microsporidian infection of the nervous tissues. Xenomas were removed and prepared for standard wax histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DNA extractions were performed on parasite spores and used in PCR and sequencing reactions. Fresh spores measured 3.4 × 1.8 µm and were uniform in size with no dimorphism observed. TEM confirmed that only a single developmental cycle and a single spore form were present. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were >99.5% similar to those of Spraguea lophii (Doflein, 1898)...

Histophagous scuticociliatids (Ciliophora) parasitizing turbot Scophthalmus maximus: morphology, in vitro culture and virulence

Pilar Alvarez-Pellitero, Oswaldo Palenzuela, Francesc Padrós, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ana Riaza, Raquel Silva, Javier Arán

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 177-187 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.021

Systemic ciliatosis caused by histophagous ciliates constitutes a serious disease of cultured turbot. Six ciliate isolates were obtained from parasitized turbot during six epizootics at four different farms located in Spain, France and Portugal. Axenic cultures of the six isolates were obtained by periodical subculturing in ATCC 1651MA or supplemented L-15 media. In basal media or seawater, the parasites could survive starving for long periods with no apparent proliferation. In adequate media, growth kinetics was found to be very similar for isolates A and B, with a clear influence of temperature. Morphological studies demonstrated that all isolates...

Studies on transmission and life cycle of Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa), an enteric parasite of turbot Scophthalmus maximus

María J. Redondo, Oswaldo Palenzuela, Pilar Alvarez-Pellitero

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 188-198 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.022

In order to elucidate the transmission and dispersion routes used by the myxozoan parasite Enteromyxum scophthalmi Palenzuela, Redondo et Alvarez-Pellitero, 2002 within its host (Scophthalmus maximus L.), a detailed study of the course of natural and experimental infections was carried out. Purified stages obtained from infected fish were also used in in vitro assays with explants of uninfected intestinal epithelium. The parasites can contact and penetrate loci in the intestinal epithelium very quickly. From there, they proliferate and spread to the rest of the digestive system, generally in an antero-posterior pattern. The dispersion...

Intraoligochaete development of Myxobolus intimus (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae), a gill myxosporean of the roach (Rutilus rutilus)

Orsolya Z. Rácz, Csaba Székely, Kálmán Molnár

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 199-207 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.023

The infection with Myxobolus intimus Zaika, 1965 in the gills of the roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) from Lake Balaton was recorded in 28 out of the 39 fish examined. Developing and mature plasmodia were detected on the gills exclusively in the spring. The Myxobolus intimus infection was found only in 2- to 3-year-old fish. In histological sections, young plasmodia were found in capillaries of the secondary lamellae. More mature, round plasmodia 0.4-0.6 mm in diameter, deformed the respiratory lamellae. The intraoligochaete development of M. intimus was studied in experimentally infected oligochaetes. In two experiments, uninfected...

Sphaerospora dicentrarchi and S. testicularis (Myxozoa: Sphaerosporidae) in farmed European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from Italy

Maria Letizia Fioravanti, Monica Caffara, Daniela Florio, Andrea Gustinelli, Federica Marcer

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 208-210 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.024

The distribution of Sphaerospora dicentrarchi Sitjà-Bobadilla et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1992 and S. testicularis Sitjà-Bobadilla et Alvarez-Pellitero, 1990, myxozoan parasites of European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.), was investigated in different farming systems in Italy. In total, 1406 fish were examined. High S. dicentrarchi prevalence was observed in all the farming systems involved in this survey (extensive farms: 51.5%; intensive farms: inland 59.6%, inshore floating cages 76.2%, offshore floating cages 41.6%) except for submersible cages (7.4%). S. testicularis was detected only in nine male...

The phylogeny of marine and freshwater species of the genus Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890 (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences

Ivan Fiala, Iva Dyková

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 211-214 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.025

The small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) of two freshwater and one marine species of the genus Chloromyxum Mingazzini, 1890 were sequenced. The SSU rDNA trees obtained show the phylogenetic position of the marine species Chloromyxum leydigi Mingazzini, 1890 to be at the base of the freshwater clade, being well supported by a high bootstrap value. Chloromyxum cyprini Fujita, 1927 is closely related to Chloromyxum truttae Léger, 1906 and they represent a sister branch to raabeia sp., Myxidium sp. and Myxidium truttae Léger, 1930. Chloromyxum legeri Tourraine, 1931 is in a position ancestral to Myxidium...

Extensive release of an antigen associated with the sporogonic stages of Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) is detected by a heterologous antibody raised to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea)

David J. Morris, Mansour El-Matbouli, Alexandra Adams

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 215-220 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.026

Monoclonal antibody B4 (mAb B4) was previously developed to the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae Canning, Curry, Feist, Longshaw et Okamura, 1999, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease of salmonids. Here we describe the reaction of mAb B4 against Myxobolus cerebralis Hofer, 1903, the parasite that causes 'whirling disease' in salmonids. Tissues examined were collected from experimentally infected rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (O.F. Müller), the two hosts involved in the life cycle of M. cerebralis. Paraffin sections of infected...

Proliferative renal myxosporidiosis in spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in British Columbia and Washington

Simon Jones, Gina Prosperi-Porta, Sheila Dawe, Janice Blackbourn, Kimberley Taylor, Geoffrey Lowe, Andrea Osborn

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 221-227 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.027

An unidentified myxosporean parasite (CKX) is described from the kidney of approximately 80% of spawning coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum) in British Columbia, Canada and Washington, United States of America. Morphological features were described using light and electron microscopy. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 18S ribosomal RNA gene and in situ hybridisation were used to further characterise CKX. The parasite occurred with a focal distribution within tubule epithelial cells, the tubule lumen and the interstitium as primary cells containing from one to at least 16 secondary cells. Luminal stages were...

Some aspects of the biology and life history of Bothitrema bothi (Monogenea: Bothitrematidae) from the flounder Scophthalmus aquosus (Bothidae) from New Jersey, USA

Sherman S. Hendrix

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 229-237 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.028

Bothitrema bothi (MacCallum, 1913), a monopisthocotylean monogenean (Bothitrematidae) found on gills and occasionally on the olfactory rosette within the nares of the bothid flounder, Scophthalmus aquosus (Mitchill, 1815), is distributed along the Atlantic coast of the USA from Woods Hole, Massachusetts to Delaware Bay. This study details aspects of the morphology, microecology and biology of the oncomiracidium, juvenile and adult. Adult worms occur almost exclusively between rakers on the first and second gill arches while juveniles occupy secondary gill filaments. Analysis of variance revealed significant arch, side and position effects....

The use of morphometric characters to discriminate specimens of laboratory-reared and wild populations of Gyrodactylus salaris and G. thymalli (Monogenea)

Andrew P. Shinn, Haakon Hansen, Kjetil Olstad, Lutz Bachmann, Tor A. Bakke

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 239-252 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.029

Gyrodactylus thymalli Žitňan, 1960 and G. salaris Malmberg, 1957 have an indistinguishable ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequence, but exhibit surprisingly high levels of intra- and interspecific sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (CO1) gene. To test whether different populations of these reportedly very similar species could be discriminated using morphometric methods, we examined the morphometry of four different populations representing different mitochondrial clades. Twenty five point-to-point measurements, including five new characters of the attachment hooks, were recorded from three Norwegian...

Chaetotaxy applied to Norwegian Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Monogenea) clades and related species from salmonids

Tor A. Bakke, Kariann B. Nilsen, Andrew P. Shinn

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 253-261 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.030

Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 is a major pathogen of wild Salmo salar L. parr populations in Norway, and its delimitation from non-pathogenic species is important. The present study was undertaken to test the power of chaetotaxy to differentiate between three populations belonging to both the same and different clades (as stated by mtDNA) of G. salaris, in addition to three different species of gyrodactylids (G. salaris, G. thymalli and G. caledoniensis). The gyrodactylids were processed for chaetotaxy in situ and a maximum of 50 specimens per collection site were used to construct a generalised...

Homing of Gyrodactylus salaris and G. derjavini (Monogenea) on different hosts and response post-attachment

Kurt Buchmann, Kenneth K. Madsen, Michael B. Dalgaard

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 263-267 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.031

In natural European waters, the congeneric monogeneans Gyrodactylus derjavini Mikailov, 1975 and G. salaris Malmberg, 1957 are primarily found on brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., respectively. Interestingly, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), originating from North America, is as susceptible as brown trout to G. derjavini. However, the mechanisms involved in this host specificity are poorly understood but may include behavioural, mechanical and chemical factors affecting parasite attraction, attachment, feeding, reproduction and host responses. In the present laboratory...

The bathymetric distribution of the digenean parasites of deep-sea fishes

Rodney A. Bray

Folia Parasitologica 51[2/3] 268-274 (2004) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2004.032

The bathymetric range of 149 digenean species recorded deeper than 200 m, the approximate depth of the continental shelf/slope break, are presented in graphical form. It is found that only representatives of the four families Lepocreadiidae, Fellodistomidae, Derogenidae and Hemiuridae reach to abyssal regions (>4,000 m). Three other families, the Lecithasteridae, Zoogonidae and Opecoelidae, have truly deep-water forms reaching deeper than 3,000 m. Bathymetric data are available for the Acanthocolpidae, Accacoeliidae, Bucephalidae, Cryptogonimidae, Faustulidae, Gorgoderidae, Monorchiidae and Sanguinicolidae showing that they reach deeper than 200...