Folia Parasitologica, vol. 63 (2016)

A new species of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) and Spirorchis cf. scripta from chicken turtle, Deirochelys reticularia (Emydidae), with an emendation and molecular phylogeny of Spirorchis

Jackson R. Roberts, Raphael Orélis-Ribeiro, Kenneth M. Halanych, Cova R. Arias, Stephen A. Bullard

Folia Parasitologica 63:041 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.041

Chicken turtles, Deirochelys reticularia (Latreille in Sonnini et Latreille) (Testudines: Emydidae) from Alabama, USA were infected by Spirorchis collinsi Roberts et Bullard sp. n. and Spirorchis cf. scripta. The new species is most easily differentiated from its congeners by the combination of having caeca that extend far beyond the genitalia, intercaecal genitalia positioned in the middle portion of the body, a testicular column that nearly abuts the caecal bifurcation, a cirrus sac positioned between the testes and ovary, a massive Mehlis' gland, an elongate, longitudinal metraterm that extends anteriad beyond the level...

Pentastome assemblages of the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti (Reptilia: Crocodylidae), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

Kerstin Junker, Frikkie Calitz, Danny Govender, Boris R. Krasnov, Joop Boomker

Folia Parasitologica 63:040 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.040

Thirty-two specimens of the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti (Reptilia: Crocodylidae), from the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and its vicinity were examined for pentastomid parasites during 1995 to 1999 and 2010 to 2011. Pentastomid parasites occurred throughout the year and were widespread in the study area with an overall prevalence of 97% and an overall mean abundance of 23.4 (0-81). Pentastome assemblages comprised six species in three sebekid genera: Alofia nilotici Riley et Huchzermeyer, 1995, A. simpsoni Riley, 1994, Leiperia cincinnalis Sambon, 1922, Sebekia cesarisi Giglioli in Sambon,...

A new R package and web application for detecting bilateral asymmetry in parasitic infections

Matthew T. Wayland, James C. Chubb

Folia Parasitologica 63:039 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.039

When parasites invade paired structures of their host non-randomly, the resulting asymmetry may have both pathological and ecological significance. To facilitate the detection and visualisation of asymmetric infections we have developed a free software tool, Analysis of Symmetry of Parasitic Infections (ASPI). This tool has been implemented as an R package ( and a web application ( ASPI can detect both consistent bias towards one side, and inconsistent bias in which the left side is favoured in some hosts and the right in others. Application of ASPI is demonstrated using previously...

A new genus of rhinebothriidean cestodes from batoid elasmobranchs, with the description of five new species and two new combinations

Florian B. Reyda, Claire J. Healy, Andrew R. Haslach, Timothy R. Ruhnke, Tara L. Aprill, Michael P. Bergman, Andrew L. Daigler, Elsie A. Dedrick, Illari Delgado, Kathryn S. Forti, Kaylee S. Herzog, Rebecca S. Russell, Danielle D. Willsey

Folia Parasitologica 63:038 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.038

Survey work of batoid elasmobranchs in the eastern Atlantic and Indo-Pacific revealed multiple species of a new genus of cestode. Stillabothrium Healy et Reyda gen. n. (Rhinebothriidea: Escherbothriidae) is unique in its possession of an even number of non-medial longitudinal septa in the posterior portion of the bothridia, resulting in a series of loculi that are longer than wide (i.e. vertically oriented) and are arranged in columns. Five new species of Stillabothrium are described, S. ashleyae Willsey et Reyda sp. n., S. davidcynthiaorum Daigler et Reyda sp. n., S. campbelli Delgado, Dedrick...

Landmark and outline-based geometric morphometrics analysis of three Stomoxys flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

Tanasak Changbunjong, Suchada Sumruayphol, Thekhawet Weluwanarak, Jiraporn Ruangsittichai, Jean-Pierre Dujardin

Folia Parasitologica 63:037 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.037

Adult flies of the genus Stomoxys Geoffroy, 1762 (Diptera: Muscidae), especially S. pullus Austen, 1909, S. uruma Shinonaga et Kano, 1966 and S. indicus Picard, 1908, are morphologically similar and sometimes difficult to distinguish when using external morphological characteristics. These species may act as vectors and/or potential vectors of many pathogens (virus, bacteria and protozoa). Their correct identification is important to target the vectors involved in the transmission of the pathogens and also helps in the fly control program.The aim of the present study was to distinguish three species which are difficult to...

A new coccidian parasite of the boodie, Bettongia lesueur (Mammalia: Marsupialia: Potoroidae), from Australia

Frances Hulst, Leah F. Kemp, Jan Šlapeta

Folia Parasitologica 63:036 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.036

Four of 28 wild boodies or burrowing bettongs, Bettongia lesueur (Quoy et Gaimard) passed oocysts of species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. The boodies are surviving on off-shore islands and in large predator-proof sanctuaries on the mainland where they were reintroduced. The boodie is a potoroid marsupial extinct from the mainland of Australia due to predation from red foxes and feral cats. Comparison with other species of the genus Eimeria indicates that the coccidium found represents a new species. Sporulated oocyst of Eimeria burdi sp. n. are pyriform, 21.0-24.0 µm (mean 22.6 µm) by 14.0-16.0 µm...

Cryptosporidium testudinis sp. n., Cryptosporidium ducismarci Traversa, 2010 and Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype III (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in tortoises

Jana Ježková, Michaela Horčičková, Lenka Hlásková, Bohumil Sak, Dana Květoňová, Jan Novák, Lada Hofmannová, John McEvoy, Martin Kváč

Folia Parasitologica 63:035 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.035

Understanding of the diversity of species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 in tortoises remains incomplete due to the limited number of studies on these hosts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the genetic diversity and biology of cryptosporidia in tortoises of the family Testudinidae Batsch. Faecal samples were individually collected immediately after defecation and were screened for presence of cryptosporidia by microscopy using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining, and by PCR amplification and sequence analysis targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes. Out of...

No association between latent toxoplasmosis and multiple body measures in U.S. adults

Andrew N. Berrett, Shawn D. Gale, Lance D. Erickson, Bruce L. Brown, Dawson W. Hedges

Folia Parasitologica 63:034 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.034

Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an intracellular parasite that can cause ongoing latent infection persisting for the duration of a non-definitive host's life. Affecting approximately one-third of the world's population, latent toxoplasmosis has been associated with neuropsychological outcomes and a previous report suggested an association between latent toxoplasmosis and adult height. Given the large number of people with latent toxoplasmosis and its potential associations with human height, we sought to better understand the association between latent toxoplasmosis and human morphology by evaluating seropositivity for T. gondii...

Histopathological and ultrastructural studies of Myxobolus turpisrotundus from allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in China

Qingxiang Guo, Yanhua Zhai, Zemao Gu, Yang Liu

Folia Parasitologica 63:033 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.033

During an ongoing systematic survey on species diversity of myxozoans parasitising allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in China, plasmodia were detected in the fins, lip, jaw, gill chamber, gill arches, operculum and oral cavity of infected fish. Combining the morphological and molecular data, the present species was identified as Myxobolus turpisrotundus Zhang, Wang, Li et Gong, 2010. Histopathological examination revealed that despite infecting different organs, M. turpisrotundus always occurred in dermis, demonstrating its affinity to this tissue. Histopathological effect of M. turpisrotundus on...

No association between current depression and latent toxoplasmosis in adults

Shawn D. Gale, Andrew N. Berrett, Bruce Brown, Lance D. Erickson, Dawson W. Hedges

Folia Parasitologica 63:032 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.032

Changes in behaviour and cognition have been associated with latent infection from the apicomplexan protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) in both animal and human studies. Further, neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia have also been associated with latent toxoplasmosis. Previously, we found no association between T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibody (IgG) seropositivity and depression in human adults between the ages of 20 and 39 years (n = 1 846) in a sample representative of the United States collected by the Centers for Disease Control as part of a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...

Blood flukes of Asiatic softshell turtles: revision of Coeuritrema Mehra, 1933 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) and a new species infecting Chinese softshell turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis (Trionychidae), from Vietnam

Jackson R. Roberts, Raphael Orélis-Ribeiro, Binh T. Dang, Kenneth M. Halanych, Stephen A. Bullard

Folia Parasitologica 63:031 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.031

Coeuritrema Mehra, 1933, previously regarded as a junior subjective synonym of Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922, herein is revised to include Coeuritrema lyssimus Mehra, 1933 (type species), Coeuritrema rugatus (Brooks et Sullivan, 1981) comb. n., and Coeuritrema platti Roberts et Bullard sp. n. These genera are morphologically similar by having a ventral sucker, non-fused caeca, two testes, a pre-testicular cirrus sac, an intertesticular ovary, and a common genital pore that opens dorsally and in the sinistral half of the body. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1-D3 domains of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (28S) suggested...

Toxoplasmosis in Nigeria: the story so far (1950-2016): a review

John Asekhaen Ohiolei, Clement Isaac

Folia Parasitologica 63:030 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.030

Toxoplasmosis is caused by intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908). Cats and other felids are the definitive hosts. It could be transmitted to man and animals by consumption of infected undercooked meat and contaminated food items including drinking water. Results of toxoplasmosis epidemiological surveys in animals and humans in South-West, North-West, North-East and North-Central Zones of Nigeria have been reported with greater impact on the health of pregnant women and HIV-infected individuals. Meanwhile, studies in states within the South-South and South-East Zones are relatively scanty or non-existent....

The good, the bad and the ugly: Emys trinacris, Placobdella costata and Haemogregarina stepanowi in Sicily (Testudines, Annelida and Apicomplexa)

Vincenzo Arizza, Francesco Sacco, Debora Russo, Rita Scardino, Marco Arculeo, Melita Vamberger, Federico Marrone

Folia Parasitologica 63:029 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.029

Endemic Sicilian pond turtles Emys trinacris Fritz, Fattizzo, Guicking, Tripepi, Pennisi, Lenk, Joger et Wink were examined for the presence of haemogregarine parasites. The presence of haemogregarines, occurring mainly in the microgametocyte stage (13.2 ± 0.12 μm in length and 6.4 ± 0.52 μm in width), was observed in approximately 9% of the sampled E. trinacris. Based on the observed morphology and on the sequencing of nuclear 18S rDNA, we identified the parasite as Haemogregarina stepanowi Danilewsky, 1885. Morphometric study of uninfected and infected red blood cells has shown that H. stepanowi induces...

Analysis of structures and epitopes of a novel secreted protein MYR1 in Toxoplasma gondii

Jian Zhou, Gang Lu, Shenyi He

Folia Parasitologica 63:028 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.028

Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite and can infect warmblooded animals and humans all over the world. Development of effective vaccines is considered the only ideal way to control infection with T. gondii. However, only one live vaccine is commercially available for use in sheep and goats. Thus more effective antigenic proteins are searched for. In the present study we report a novel protein by secreted T. gondii termed Myc regulation 1 (MYR1). The physical and chemical characteristics, epitopes, hydrophilicity and functional sites of MYR1 were analysed by multiple bioinformatic...

Application of compound mixture of caprylic acid, iron and mannan oligosaccharide against Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea) in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata

George Rigos, Ivona Mladineo, Chrysa Nikoloudaki, Anamarija Vrbatovic, Dimitra Kogiannou

Folia Parasitologica 63:027 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.027

We have evaluated the therapeutic effect of a compound mixture of caprylic acid (200 mg/kg fish), organic iron (0.2% of diet) and mannan oligosaccharide (0.4% of diet) in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, infected with Sparicotyle chrysophrii Beneden et Hesse, 1863 in controlled conditions. One hundred and ten reared and S. chrysophrii-free fish (197 g) located in a cement tank were infected by the parasite two weeks following the addition of 150 S. chrysophrii-infected fish (70 g). Growth parameters and gill parasitic load were measured in treated against control fish after a ten-week-period. Differences in final...

A morphological and genetic description of pentastomid infective nymphs belonging to the family Sebekidae Sambon, 1922 in fish in Australian waters

Diane P. Barton, Jess A.T. Morgan

Folia Parasitologica 63:026 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.026

Infective nymphal stages of the family Sebekidae Sambon, 1922 are reported from four species of fish in Australian waters for the first time. Infected fish were collected from locations in Western Australia, the Northern Territory and north Queensland. The infective nymphs of Alofia merki Giglioli in Sambon, 1922 and Sebekia purdieae Riley, Spratt et Winch, 1990 are reported and described for the first time. The remaining specimens were identified as belonging to the genus Sebekia Sambon, 1922 based on the combination of buccal cadre shape, shape and size of hooks, and overall body size, but could not be attributed to any of the...

Development of an ELISA using anti-idiotypic antibody for diagnosis of opisthorchiasis

Aitbay K. Bulashev, Sergey N. Borovikov, Shynar S. Serikova, Zhanbolat A. Suranshiev, Vladimir S. Kiyan, Saule Z. Eskendirova

Folia Parasitologica 63:025 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.025

Monoclonal antibody specific for an epitope of cretory-secretory antigen protein of Opisthorchis felineus (Rivolta, 1884) (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) with a molecular weight of 28 kDa was used in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immobilisation of liver fluke specific antigen to the solid phase. Examination of human sera by this ELISA compared with commercial assays demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody epitope is located within this significant parasite protein. Anti-idiotypic antibody specific for the paratope of this monoclonal antibody was obtained by a hybridoma technique. Mimicking an epitope of excretory-secretory...

Prevalence and intensity of Streblidae in bats from a Neotropical savanna region in Brazil

Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar, Yasmine Antonini

Folia Parasitologica 63:024 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.024

Bats of the family Phyllostomidae are common hosts to streblids known as bat flies. Here, we discuss the component community, prevalence and intensity of infection with species of Streblidae on an assemblage of phyllostomid bats in the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area (APA Cafuringa) in the core area of the Cerrado in Central Brazil. A total of 1 841 streblid individuals of 24 species occurred on 752 bats of 14 species. Ten species of streblids infected Glossophaga soricina (Pallas), whereas seven or fewer streblid species infected the other bat species. Nine bat fly species presented a prevalence of more than 50%, whereas some differences...

Investigation of avian haemosporidian parasites from raptor birds in Turkey, with molecular characterisation and microscopic confirmation

Arif Ciloglu, Alparslan Yildirim, Onder Duzlu, Zuhal Onder, Zafer Dogan, Abdullah Inci

Folia Parasitologica 63:023 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.023

Avian haemosporidians are common vector-borne blood parasites that have been reported in birds all over the world. Investigations of avian haemosporidian parasites are conducted mainly on passerine birds. However, studies that focus on non-passerine avian hosts are important for our understanding of the true diversity, host specificity and genetic variability among these widespread parasites. In the present study, blood samples from a total of 22 raptor birds belonging to two orders, two families and six species from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were investigated for three genera of avian haemosporidians (Plasmodium Marchiafava et Celli,...

Helminth parasites of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic

František Moravec, Tomáš Scholz

Folia Parasitologica 63:022 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.022

Parasitological examinations of 102 specimens of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Blumenbach) from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic (South Bohemia and South Moravia) were carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) in the years 1987-1992. In them, a total of 19 species of helminth parasites was found, including Trematoda (11 species), Cestoda (2), Nematoda (4) and Acanthocephala (2), which can be divided into three main groups regarding their host specificity: parasites specific for cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) (37%), those...

A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia

Csaba Székely, Stephen D. Atkinson, Kálmán Molnár, László Egyed, András Gubányi, Gábor Cech

Folia Parasitologica 63:021 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.021

Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy...

The life cycle of Huffmanela huffmani Moravec, 1987(Nematoda: Trichosomoididae), an endemic marine-relict parasite of Centrarchidae from a Central Texas spring

McLean L. D. Worsham, David G. Huffman, František Moravec, J. Randy Gibson

Folia Parasitologica 63:020 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.020

The life cycle of the swim bladder nematode Huffmanela huffmani Moravec, 1987 (Trichinelloidea: Trichosomoididae), an endemic parasite of centrarchid fishes in the upper spring run of the San Marcos River in Hays County, Texas, USA, was experimentally completed. The amphipods Hyalella cf. azteca (Saussure), Hyalella sp. and Gammarus sp. were successfully infected with larvated eggs of Huffmanela huffmani. After ingestion of eggs of H. huffmani by experimental amphipods, the first-stage larvae hatch from their eggshells and penetrate through the digestive tract to the hemocoel of the amphipod....

Correlation between host specificity and genetic diversity for the muscle-dwelling fish parasite Myxobolus pseudodispar: examples of myxozoan host-shift?

Barbara Forró, Edit Eszterbauer

Folia Parasitologica 63:019 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.019

Myxobolus pseudodispar Gorbunova, 1936 (Myxozoa) is capable of infecting and developing mature myxospores in several cyprinid species. However, M. pseudodispar isolates from different fish show up to 5% differences in the SSU rDNA sequences. This is an unusually large intraspecific difference for myxozoans and only some of the muscle-dwelling myxozoan species possess such a high genetic variability. We intended to study the correlation between the host specificity and the phylogenetic relationship of the parasite isolates, and to find experimental proof for the putatively wide host range of M. pseudodispar with cross-infection experiments...

First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs in a highly endemic area of Poland

Jacek Karamon, Małgorzata Samorek-Pieróg, Maciej Kochanowski, Joanna Dąbrowska, Jacek Sroka, Elżbieta Gołąb, Gérald Umhang, Tomasz Cencek

Folia Parasitologica 63:018 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.018

The aim of the investigation was to estimate the epizootic situation concerning infection by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus) from a Polish region where this parasite is highly prevalent in red foxes. Faecal samples (n = 148) were collected from rural dogs in Podkarpackie Province. Samples were examined through nested PCR (for E. multilocularis), multiplex PCR (E. multilocularis, species of Taenia Linnaeus, 1758) and PCR [E. granulosus (Batsch, 1786)]. Specific products were sequenced. Faeces were also examined coproscopically. In samples from...

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the histopathological impact of Macrogyrodactylus clarii (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on the gills of catfish, Clarias gariepinus

Mohammed Mohammed El-Naggar, Joanne Cable, Safaa Zaky Arafa, Samir Ahmed El-Abbassy, Graham C. Kearn

Folia Parasitologica 63:017 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.017

Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the histopathological effects of the monogenean Macrogyrodactylus clarii Gussev, 1961 on the gills of the catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). Suction generated during attachment created 'footprints' on host surfaces in which the host tissues were elevated above the general gill surface. 'Footprints' were bordered by four clefts caused by the muscular flaps on the anterior, lateral and posterior margins of the haptor. The hamuli points penetrate the gill tissue but no evidence was found for the insertion of the marginal hooklets. At the site of attachment, host cells...

T7 polymerase-driven transcription is downregulated in metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania mexicana

Aygul Ishemgulova, Natalya Kraeva, Drahomíra Faktorová, Lucie Podešvová, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko

Folia Parasitologica 63:016 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.016

In our previous work we established a T7 polymerase-driven Tetracycline-inducible protein expression system in Leishmania mexicana (Biagi, 1953). We used this system to analyse gene expression profiles during development of L. mexicana in procyclic and metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes. The transcription of the gene of interest and the T7 polymerase genes was significantly reduced upon cell differentiation. This regulation is not locus-specific. It depends on untranslated regions flanking open reading frames of the genes analysed. In this paper, we report that the previously established conventional inducible protein expression...

Two new species of Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from anuran amphibians in Pará, Brazil

Yuriy Kuzmin, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo, Heriberto Figueira da Silva Filho, Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

Folia Parasitologica 63:015 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.015

Two new lung-dwelling nematode species of the genus Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 were discovered in Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará state, Brazil. Rhabdias galactonoti sp. n. was found in a dendrobatid frog Adelphobates galactonotus (Steindachner). The species is characterised by the regularly folded inner surface of the anterior part of the buccal capsule seen in apical view, flask-shaped oesophageal bulb and narrow, elongated tail. Rhabdias stenocephala sp. n. from two species of leptodactylid frogs, Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti) (type host) and L. paraensis (Heyer), is characterised by...

Morphological and molecular descriptions of Moniliformis saudi sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Moniliformidae) from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg) in Saudi Arabia, with a key to species and notes on histopathology

Omar M. Amin, Richard A. Heckmann, Osama Mohammed, R. Paul Evans

Folia Parasitologica 63:014 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.014

A new acanthocepohalan species, Moniliformis saudi sp. n. is described from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg), in central Saudi Arabia. Fourteen other valid species of Moniliformis Travassos, 1915 are recognised. The new species of Moniliformis is distinguished by having a small proboscis (315-520 µm long and 130-208 µm wide) with two apical pores, 14 rows of 8 hooks each and small hooks, thre largest being 25-31 µm long anteriorly. Distinguishing features are incorporated in a dichotomous key to the species of Moniliformis. The description is augmented by scanning electron...

The molecular phylogeny of the digenean family Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925 and the value of morphological characters, with the erection of a new subfamily

Rodney A. Bray, Thomas H. Cribb, D. Timothy J. Littlewood, Andrea Waeschenbach

Folia Parasitologica 63:013 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.013

Large and small rDNA sequences of 41 species of the family Opecoelidae are utilised to produce phylogenetic inference trees, using brachycladioids and lepocreadioids as outgroups. Sequences were newly generated for 13 species. The resulting Bayesian trees show a monophyletic Opecoelidae. The earliest divergent group is the Stenakrinae, based on two species which are not of the type-genus. The next well-supported clade to diverge is constituted of three species of Helicometra Odhner, 1902. Based on this tree and the characters of the egg and uterus, a new subfamily, the Helicometrinae, is erected and defined to include the genera Helicometra,...

Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy

Tereza Machačová, Eva Bártová, Kamil Sedlák, Radka Slezáková, Marie Budíková, Diego Piantedosi, Vincenzo Veneziano

Folia Parasitologica 63:012 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.012

Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies...

Intraspecific morphometric variation in myxosporeans

Yanhua Zhai, Christopher M. Whipps, Zemao Gu, Qingxiang Guo, Zizhen Wu, Hongmei Wang, Yang Liu

Folia Parasitologica 63:011 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.011

Morphometric data from spores of ten myxosporean species were statistically analysed to explore myxosporean intraspecific variation in measurements when obtained from a sample from: (1) the same plasmodium, (2) different plasmodia from the same host and (3) different host individuals and localities. In some cases, significant differences in spore dimensions were found between samples from the same plasmodium, highlighting the difficulty of obtaining representative measurements of myxosporean spore. In addition, significant differences in spore dimensions were found when plasmodia from the same site of infection were compared, suggesting that measurements...

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-inoculation at different time points influences the outcome of C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS

Dong-Hua Cao, Ji-Chun Wang, Jun Liu, Yun-Ting Du, Li-Wang Cui, Ya-Ming Cao

Folia Parasitologica 63:010 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.010

Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine. We performed a series of co-infection experiments with BCG-Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi Landau, 1965 AS using C57BL/6 mice to analyse whether BCG can affect the development of protective immunity to infection with Plasmodium spp. and the mechanism of this protection. We divided mice into four groups: BCG-inoculation 4 weeks prior to P. c. chabaudi AS infection (B-4w-Pc); simultaneous BCG-inoculation and P. c. chabaudi AS infection (Pc+B); BCG-inoculation 3 days post P. c. chabaudi AS (Pc-3-B) infection; and mono-P. c. chabaudi...

The first detection of species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893 in moose, Alces alces (Linnaeus), in Norway

Irma Pūraitė, Olav Rosef, Jana Radzijevskaja, Indrė Lipatova, Algimantas Paulauskas

Folia Parasitologica 63:009 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.009

Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease and various wildlife species are reservoir hosts for zoonotic species of Babesia Starcovici, 1893. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and prevalence of Babesia spp. in moose Alces alces (Linnaeus) in two regions of Norway. A total of 99 spleen samples were collected from animals of various ages from an area with the occurrence of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), and from an area where the ticks are known to be absent. Infection was detected by the amplification of different regions of the 18S rRNA gene by using two different PCR primer sets...

A synoptic review of Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of suckers (Catostomidae) in North America, with description of two new species

Mikuláš Oros, Jan Brabec, Roman Kuchta, Anindo Choudhury, Tomáš Scholz

Folia Parasitologica 63:008 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.008

Monozoic cestodes of the recently amended genus Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of suckers (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) in North America, are reviewed, with information on their host specificity, distribution and data on the scolex morphology of seven species studied for the first time using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Evaluation of type and voucher specimens from museum collections and newly collected material of most species indicated the following valid nominal species: Promonobothrium minytremi Mackiewicz, 1968 (type species); P. ingens (Hunter, 1927); P. hunteri...

A new species of Paraberrapex Jensen, 2001 (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from Squatina guggenheim Marini (Squatiniformes: Squatinidae) off Argentina

Leonardo D. Mutti, Verónica A. Ivanov

Folia Parasitologica 63:007 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.007

Paraberrapex atlanticus sp. n. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) is described from the spiral intestine of the angel shark Squatina guggenheim Marini from coastal waters off Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Paraberrapex atlanticus sp. n. can be distinguished from the only species described in the genus, P. manifestus Jensen, 2001 in having cocoons 5-6 times longer with more eggs per cocoon, the extension of the uterine duct, the distribution of vitelline follicles, and the size and density of microtriches on the bothridial surfaces. The presence of P. atlanticus sp. n. in S. guggenheim confirms the specificity of Paraberrapex...

Two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky et Boeger, 2002 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker) and L. argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Lutjanidae) in the South China Sea

Yuan Sun, Tingbao Yang

Folia Parasitologica 63:006 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.006

A new mite species Schizocoptes daberti sp. n. (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) from Chrysochloris stuhlmanni Matsche (Afrosoricida: Chrysochloridae) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Andre V. Bochkov

Folia Parasitologica 63:005 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.005

A new mite species Schizocoptes daberti sp. n. (Acariformes: Chirodiscidae) from Chrysochloris stuhlmanni Matsche (Afrosoricida: Chrysochloridae) from the Democratic Republic of the Congo is described. It differs from the closely related species S. conjugatus Lawrence, 1944 in both sexes by distance si-si at least twice longer than si-se (vs these distances are subequal in S. conjugatus); in females by setae cp 30-40 µm long (vs about 65 µm long), and in males by the very weakly sclerotised posterior parts of the hysteronotal shield (vs strongly sclerotised),...

Seasonal occurrence and microhabitat specificity of Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon Avenant-Oldewage in Avenant-Oldewage et al., 2014 (Monogenea: Diplozoidae) infecting Labeobarbus aeneus (Burchell) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Vaal Dam, South Africa: water quality and host size as determining factors?

Beric M. Gilbert, Annemariè Avenant-Oldewage

Folia Parasitologica 63:004 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.004

This is the first study detailing the microhabitat specificity of the monogenean parasite, Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon Avenant-Oldewage in Avenant-Oldewage et al., 2014. Samples of the monogenean were collected from the gills of the smallmouth yellowfish Labeobarbus aeneus (Burchell) from the Vaal Dam, South Africa, over four seasons with the use of gill nets. Host condition factor fluctuated between the different seasons, with the highest values recorded in summer. Adults and diporpas of P. ichthyoxanthon were found in all four seasons. Adult parasites predominantly infect the first gill arch, whereas diporpas were...

Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, C. muris and Cryptosporidium deer genotype in wild cervids and caprines in the Czech Republic

Michaela Kotková, Karel Němejc, Bohumil Sak, Vladimír Hanzal, Dana Květoňová, Lenka Hlásková, Šárka Čondlová, John McEvoy, Martin Kváč

Folia Parasitologica 63:003 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.003

A total of 269 faecal samples of various game animals, including 136 red deer (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus), 64 European fallow deer (Dama dama [Linnaeus]), 26 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus [Zimmermann]), and 43 mouflon sheep (Ovis orientalis musimon Pallas) were collected at 15 game preserves across the Czech Republic and examined for infection with species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 using microscopy (following aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining) and molecular tools. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in one faecal sample originating from red deer. Ten positive cases of infection...

Molecular phylogenetic confirmation of Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1836 (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) in Laos and Thailand

Jurairat Jongthawin, Pewpan M. Intapan, Oranuch Sanpool, Penchom Janwan, Lakkhana Sadaow, Tongjit Thanchomnang, Sakhone Laymanivong, Wanchai Maleewong

Folia Parasitologica 63:002 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.002

We report the molecular-phylogenetic identification of larvae of the nematode genus Gnathostoma Owen, 1836 collected from a snake, Ptyas koros Schlegel, in Laos and adult worms from the stomach of a dog in Thailand. DNA was extracted and amplified targeting the partial cox1 gene and the ITS-2 region of ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that all five advanced third-stage larvae and seven adult worms were Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1836. This is also the first molecular evidence of infection with G. spinigerum in a snake from Laos.

Ceratomyxa bohari sp. n. (Myxozoa: Ceratomyxidae) from the gall bladder of Lutjanus bohar Forsskål from the Red Sea coast off Saudi Arabia: morphology, seasonality and SSU rDNA sequence

Lamjed Mansour, Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki, Ahmad F. Tamihi, Saleh Al-Quraishy

Folia Parasitologica 63:001 (2016) | DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.001

A new myxozoan, Ceratomyxa bohari sp. n., infecting the gall bladder of two-spot red snapper, Lutjanus bohar Forsskål, in the Red Sea off Saudi Arabia, is described using light microscopy and characterised genetically. The infection was recorded as mature spores floating free in the bile. The overall prevalence of infection of the type host was 19% (67 fish infected of 360 examined), with the highest prevalence in autumn (31%; 28/90) and the lowest in winter at 12% (11/90). Mature spores are slender and slightly crescent-shaped in the frontal view, with anterior and posterior margins tapered gradually to rounded valvular tips. Spore...