Folia Parasitologica, vol. 62 (2015)

Self-sustaining infrapopulation or colony? Redial clonal groups of Himasthla elongata (Mehlis, 1831) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Littorina littorea (Linnaeus) (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) do not support the concept of eusocial colonies in trematodes

Kirill V. Galaktionov, Irina M. Podvyaznaya, Kirill E. Nikolaev, Ivan A. Levakin

Folia Parasitologica 62:067 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.067

Trematode sporocysts and rediae reproduce by parthenogenesis, forming clonal groups in the molluscan host. It has recently become popular to consider these groups as eusocial colonies, with division of labour between rediae morphs: small 'soldiers' incapable of reproduction defend the colony, while large rediae reproduce. Alternatively, clonal groups can be considered as self-sustaining infrapopulations. We tested these two hypotheses in the light of new data on rediae of Himasthla elongata (Mehlis, 1831) from snails Littorina littorea (Linnaeus) concerning ultrastructure, growth character and composition of their groups. Clonal groups...

The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in stutterers is higher than in the control group

Tuncay Çelik, Cem Gökçen, Özgür Aytaş, Aysima Özçelik, Mustafa Çelik, Nurdan Çoban

Folia Parasitologica 62:066 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.066

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and stuttering. We investigated the seropositivity rate for anti-T. gondii IgG and antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in stuttering children to ascertain a possible relationship between T. gondii infection and stuttering. We selected 65 stuttering children and 65 control children (non-stutterers) to investigate the seropositivity rate of anti-T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scalp electroencephalography (EEG) were also performed in stuttering...

Evaluating the role of intestinal parasites in the high rates of irritable bowel syndrome in South America: a pilot study

George Vasquez-Rios, Jorge D. Machicado, Maria T. Gamero, Adriana Pezua, Angel B. Betancourt, Angelica Terashima, Luis A. Marcos

Folia Parasitologica 62:065 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.065

There is limited data on the role of intestinal parasites in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in South America. We evaluated the association between intestinal parasitism and IBS status in Peru. Intestinal parasites were detected in 43% of the IBS cases and in 51% of the controls (P = 0.4). After excluding those infected by any parasite, the IBS prevalence remained high (22%; P = 0.7). No statistically significant difference was noted between IBS cases and controls in terms of monoparasitism, biparasitism or multiparasitism. Furthermore, the protist Blastocystis sp. was inversely associated with IBS.

Presence of potential pathogenic genotypes of free-living amoebae isolated from sandboxes in children's playgrounds

Marcin Cholewiński, Piotr Solarczyk, Monika Derda, Agnieszka Wojtkowiak-Giera, Edward Hada¶

Folia Parasitologica 62:064 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.064

Some free-living amoebae are a potential threat to human health. The best known species are those of the genus Acanthamoeba Volkonsky, 1931, which cause Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and other forms of tissue inflammation. The aim of the present study was to search for potential pathogenic genotypes of free-living amoeba in the sand in children's playgrounds. Our results confirmed that free-living amoebae were present in all examined playgrounds. Sequences of the 18S rDNA have shown that all isolated potentially pathogenic strains of amoebae belong to genotype T4 of Acanthamoeba. The potential...

How many species of whipworms do we share? Whipworms from man and other primates form two phylogenetic lineages

Jana Doleľalová, Miroslav Oborník, Eva Hajduąková, Milan Jirků, Klára J. Petrľelková, Petra Bolechová, Cristina Cutillas, Rocio Callejón, Jozef Jaroą, Zuzana Beránková, David Modrý

Folia Parasitologica 62:063 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.063

The whipworms, i.e. parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichuris Roederer, 1761, infect a variety of mammals. Apparently low diversity of primate-infecting species of Trichuris strongly contrasts with the high number of species described in other mammalian hosts. The present study addresses the diversity of whipworms in captive and free-ranging primates and humans by analysing nuclear (18S rRNA, ITS2) and mitochondrial (cox1) DNA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that primate whipworms form two independent lineages: (i) the Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus, 1771) clade comprised of genetically almost identical whipworms from human...

Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859) from symptomatic human infections in Slovenia

Barbara ©oba, Sabina Islamović, Miha Skvarč, Simone M. Cacciò

Folia Parasitologica 62:062 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.062

Giardiasis is a common gastrointestinal infection of humans and animals with a worldwide distribution. Eight genetic groups (known as assemblages A to H) are currently recognised within the species complex of Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859), of which assemblages A and B are responsible for infection of humans and other mammalian hosts. Genotyping data on giardiasis are not available from Slovenia. In this work, we have characterised isolates of G. duodenalis from 85 human symptomatic cases collected during 2002-2013. Genomic DNAs were first tested by a real-time (rt) PCR assay and then by conventional PCR at three loci (beta-giardin,...

Sexual segregation of Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (Acanthocephala) in the gut of burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus)

Arto Tuomainen, E. Tellervo Valtonen, Daniel P. Benesh

Folia Parasitologica 62:061 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.061

Helminths often occupy defined niches in the gut of their definitive hosts. In the dioecious acanthocephalans, adult males and females usually have similar gut distributions, but sexual site segregation has been reported in at least some species. We studied the intestinal distribution of the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus borealis von Linstow, 1901 (syn. of E. cinctulus Porta, 1905) in its definitive host, burbot (Lota lota Linnaeus). Over 80% of female worms were found in the pyloric caeca, whereas the majority of males were in the anterior two-thirds of the intestine. This difference was relatively consistent between individual...

Influence of life history traits on the population genetic structure of parasitic helminths: a minireview

Severo Vázquez-Prieto, Román Vilas, Esperanza Paniagua, Florencio M. Ubeira

Folia Parasitologica 62:060 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.060

Parasite life history traits influence the rate of gene flow between populations and the effective population size, both of which determine the levels of genetic variability and the geographic distribution of such variability. In this short review targeted to parasitologists, we summarise how life history traits influence the population genetic structure of parasitic helminths. These organisms are characterised by a wide variety of life cycles and are ecologically different from microparasites, which have been studied in more detail. In order to provide the reader a concise review that illustrates key aspects of the subject matter, we have limited...

Two new species of Urocleidoides Mizelle et Price, 1964 (Monogenoidea) from the gill lamellae of profundulids and poeciliids from Central America and southern Mexico

Edgar F. Mendoza-Franco, Juan Manuel Caspeta-Mandujano, Guillermo Salgado-Maldonado, Wilfredo Antonio Matamoros

Folia Parasitologica 62:059 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.059

During investigations of gill ectoparasites (Platyhelminthes) parasitising freshwater fish from Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador and Panama) and southeastern Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca and Chiapas), the following dactylogyrid monogenoidean were found: Urocleidoides simonae sp. n. from Profundulus punctatus (Günther) (type host), Profundulus balsanus Ahl, Profundulus guatemalensis (Günther), Profundulus kreiseri Matamoros, Shaefer, Hernández et Chakrabarty, Profundulus labialis (Günther), Profundulus oaxacae (Meek), Profundulus sp. 1 and Profundulus sp. 2 (all Profundulidae);...

Trypanorhynch cestodes (Eutetrarhynchidae) from batoids along the coast of Argentina, including the description of new species in Dollfusiella Campbell et Beveridge, 1994 and Mecistobothrium Heinz et Dailey, 1974

Adriana Menoret, Verónica A. Ivanov

Folia Parasitologica 62:058 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.058

During a recent parasitological survey of elasmobranchs along the coast of Argentina, two new species of eutetrarhynchid cestodes of the genera Dollfusiella Campbell et Beveridge, 1994 and Mecistobothrium Heinz et Dailey, 1974 were collected from batoids. Dollfusiella acuta sp. n. was found in four arhynchobatid skates, i.e. Sympterygia acuta Garman (type host), Sympterygia bonapartii Müller et Henle, Atlantoraja castelnaui (Miranda Ribeiro) and Atlantoraja platana (Günther), and Mecistobothrium oblongum sp. n. in the eagle ray Myliobatis goodei Garman. Dollfusiella...

Rhinebothrium jaimei sp. n. (Eucestoda: Rhinebothriidea: Rhinebothriidae): a new species from Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae)

Fernando P. L. Marques, Florian B. Reyda

Folia Parasitologica 62:057 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.057

Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Batoidea: Potamotrygonidae) host a diversity of parasites, including some, like their hosts, that are marine-derived. Among the parasites of potamotrygonids, the cestode fauna is the most diverse, with multiple genera having been reported, including genera endemic to the freshwaters of the Neotropics and genera that have cosmopolitan distributions. Recent efforts have been made to document the diversity of cestodes of this host-parasite system and to refine the taxonomy of parasite lineages. The present study contributes to our knowledge of Rhinebothrium Linton, 1890, a diverse cosmopolitan genus of rhinebothriidean...

An elevated blood glucose level and increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women with latent toxoplasmosis

©árka Kaňková, Jaroslav Flegr, Pavel Calda

Folia Parasitologica 62:056 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.056

About 30-50% of the world human population are infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908). Latent toxoplasmosis has many specific behavioural and physiological effects on the human body and influences the course of pregnancy, including secondary sex ratio of children of infected mothers. It was suggested that an increased concentration of glucose could be the proximate cause of increased sex ratio. There are some indirect indications of possible association between toxoplasmosis and certain forms of diabetes. Here we searched for a possible link between latent toxoplasmosis and the level of glucose in...

Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) detected in Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius) (Ixodidae)

Angelina Wójcik-Fatla, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zaj±c, Anna Sawczyn, Ewa Cisak, Jacek Dutkiewicz

Folia Parasitologica 62:055 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.055

The aim of the present work was to determine whether Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius), tick species common in eastern Poland could be infected with Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908). A total of 664 unfed D. reticulatus ticks were collected from six localities of Lublin province (eastern Poland) within the framework of study for the presence of bacterial, viral and parasitological infections, with use of PCR and confirmed by sequencing analysis. The prevalence of T. gondii DNA of B1 gene in the total examined D. reticulatus ticks was 3.2%. The infection varies greatly depending on the locality of tick...

The discovery of male Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on tub gurnard, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus) from the eastern Mediterranean

İbrahim Demirkale, Argun Akif Özak, Geoffrey Allan Boxshall

Folia Parasitologica 62:054 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.054

Caligus brevicaudatus Scott, 1901, a common but poorly known species of parasitic copepod, is redescribed from newly collected specimens of both sexes. The new material was collected from the body surface of tub gurnards, Chelidonichthys lucerna (Linnaeus), caught in eastern Mediterranean waters off the Turkish coast. Inadequately described female structures from earlier descriptions are redescribed and illustrated in detail and the male of C. brevicaudatus is described for the first time. The new material of C. brevicaudatus is compared with material collected by A. Scott and stored in the collections of the Natural History Museum,...

Morphological and molecular data for three species of the Microphallidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Australia, including the first descriptions of the cercariae of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948

Olena Kudlai, Scott C. Cutmore, Thomas H. Cribb

Folia Parasitologica 62:053 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.053

Cercariae and metacercariae of three species of the Microphallidae Travassos, 1920 were found in snails and crustaceans from tributaries of the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Specimens of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948, which have previously been reported in Queensland, were found as cercariae in the tateid gastropod Posticobia brazieri (Smith) and as metacercariae of M. brevisacciferum in the atyid shrimp Caridina indistincta Calman and of M. minutus in the parastacid crayfish Cherax dispar Reik. Combined...

The occurrence of Echinorhynchus salmonis Müller, 1784 in benthic amphipods in the Baltic Sea

Daniel P. Benesh, Raija-Liisa Aura, Ann-Britt Andersin, E. Tellervo Valtonen

Folia Parasitologica 62:052 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.052

The acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus salmonis Müller, 1784 is a common parasite of salmonid fish, but it has rarely been reported from an intermediate host. Samples of benthic amphipods, Monoporeia affinis (Lindström), were taken from multiple, deep sites (usually below 70 m) in the Gulf of Bothnia over the course of more than a decade and examined for acanthocephalans. Overall, only 0.44% of 23 296 amphipods were infected, all with just a single worm. This prevalence is consistent with several previous reports of acanthocephalans in deep-water, benthic amphipods, but it appears low compared to that often reported for acanthocephalan...

The natural history of Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 (Acanthocephala) in a high Arctic lake

Raija-Liisa Aura, Daniel P. Benesh, Risto Palomäki, E. Tellervo Valtonen

Folia Parasitologica 62:051 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.051

The acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus bothniensis Zdzitowiecki and Valtonen, 1987 differs from most other species in the genus Echinorhynchus Zoega in Müller, 1776 by infecting mysids (order Mysida) instead of amphipods (order Amphipoda) as intermediate hosts. Here we report on the occurrence of E. bothniensis in mysids (Mysis segerstralei Audzijonytė et Väinölä) and in its fish definitive hosts in a high Arctic lake. Out of 15 907 sampled mysids, 4.8% were infected with a mean intensity of 1.05 worms (range 1-5), although there was notable variation between samples taken in different years and sites. Larger mysids...

Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951

Raphael Orélis-Ribeiro, Stephen A. Bullard

Folia Parasitologica 62:050 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.050

Plehniella Szidat, 1951 is emended based on new collections from South American long-whiskered catfishes. It is clearly differentiated from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 by lacking lateral tegumental body spines and by having 6 asymmetrical caeca. Plehniella sabajperezi sp. n. infects body cavity of Pimelodus albofasciatus (Mees) from the Demerara and Rupununi Rivers (Guyana) and Pimelodus blochii (Valenciennes) from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia) and Napo River (Peru). It differs from Plehniella coelomicola Szidat, 1951 (type species) by having a thin-walled vas deferens that greatly exceeds the length of cirrus-sac and that...

Increased sialylation as a phenomenon in accommodation of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1835) in skeletal muscle fibres

Rositsa Milcheva, Dimitar Ivanov, Ivan Iliev, Russy Russev, Svetlozara Petkova, Pavel Babál

Folia Parasitologica 62:049 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.049

The biology of sialic acids has been an object of interest in many models of acquired and inherited skeletal muscle pathology. The present study focuses on the sialylation changes in mouse skeletal muscle after invasion by the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1835). Asynchronous infection with T. spiralis was induced in mice that were sacrificed at different time points of the muscle phase of the disease. The amounts of free sialic acid, sialylated glycoproteins and total sialyltransferase activity were quantified. Histochemistry with lectins specific for sialic acid was performed in order to localise distribution of sialylated...

Association between toxocariasis and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults

Lance D. Erickson, Shawn D. Gale, Andrew Berrett, Bruce L. Brown, Dawson W. Hedges

Folia Parasitologica 62:048 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.048

The ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782) and Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) may infect humans resulting in toxocariasis. A prior study associated species of Toxocara Stiles, 1905 with cognitive deficits in children. To determine if a similar association between toxocariasis and cognition exists in adults, we analysed a large dataset from the United States' Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used linear-regression and multivariate models to examine the association between toxocariasis as assessed by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies and three measures of...

Influence of levamisole and Freund's adjuvant on mouse immunisation with antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758

María de los Ángeles Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Julieta Luna-Herrera, Lauro Trejo-Castro, Natividad Montenegro-Cristino, Alfredo Almanza-González, Alejandro Escobar-Gutiérrez, Jorge Luis de la Rosa-Arana

Folia Parasitologica 62:047 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.047

We have studied the influence of both levamisole (AL) and Freund's adjuvant (AF) on the immunisation of mice with the secretory antigens of adults of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus, 1758. Total IgG antibodies were detected in all groups where the F. hepatica antigen was administered, been levels of IgG1 increased respect to IgG2a antibodies. During immunisation, IL-4 and IFN-γ were only detected in AL and AF groups, but after infection, IL-4 boosted in all groups. IFN-γ increased two fold in AF and AL groups compared to the saline solution (AS) group. Worm recovering was of 32-35% in groups administered without antigen...

Three new species of Pseudodactylogyrus (Monogenea: Pseudodactylogyridae) from Australian eels

Kazuo Ogawa, Makoto Iwashita, Craig J. Hayward, Akira Kurashima

Folia Parasitologica 62:046 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.046

Three species of Pseudodactylogyrus Gusev, 1965 (Monogenea: Pseudodactylogyridae) were collected from the gills of Anguilla reinhardtii Steindachner and A. australis Richardson from several localities in Australia and eels imported to Japan from Australia. Pseudodactylogyrus gusevi sp. n. from A. reinhardtii (type host) and A. australis in Queensland, Australia is most similar to P. bini (Kikuchi, 1929), but can be differentiated by the shorter male copulatory tube, heavy sclerotisation of the vaginal tube and the presence of a small projection of the supplementary piece of the hamulus. Pseudodactylogyrus...

A novel myxozoan parasite of terrestrial mammals: description of Soricimyxum minuti sp. n. (Myxosporea) in pygmy shrew Sorex minutus from Hungary

Csaba Székely, Gábor Cech, Stephen D. Atkinson, Kálmán Molnár, László Egyed, András Gubányi

Folia Parasitologica 62:045 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.045

As part of a biodiversity study in northwestern Hungary, we conducted a parasitological survey of small mammals. In both common shrews (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) and pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus Linnaeus), we found myxospores of a species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 (Myxosporea) and plasmodia in the bile ducts within the liver. Spores from both species of shrewswere morphologically and morphometrically indistinguishable, but differed in their SSU rRNA gene sequences by 3.3%. We identified spores and developmental stages from the common shrew as Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007,...

A study on African animal trypanosomosis in four areas of Senegal

Sophie Ravel, Oleg Mediannikov, Géraldine Bossard, Marc Desquesnes, Gérard Cuny, Bernard Davoust

Folia Parasitologica 62:044 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.044

In Senegal, several areas provide great potential for agriculture and animal production, but African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is one of the major constraints to the development of more effective livestock production systems. A study was conducted to assess the current situation of AAT in this country. Surveys were carried out between June 2011 and September 2012 in four different areas: Dakar, Sine Saloum, Kedougou region and Basse Casamance in several animal species: dogs (152), donkeys (23), horses (63), sheep (43), goats (52) and cattle (104), distributed in the four sites. Molecular tools (PCR) indicated 3.4% positive animals including dogs,...

Seroprevalence of antibodies of Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from southern Italy

Eva Bártová, Tereza Machačová, Kamil Sedlák, Marie Budíková, Ugo Mariani, Vincenzo Veneziano

Folia Parasitologica 62:043 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.043

The consumption of horse meat has been epidemiologically linked to clinical toxoplasmosis in humans and neosporosis that may cause clinical illness in horses. Here we determined seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 and species of Neospora Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 in horses from Italy. Blood samples were collected from 643 apparently healthy horses from 60 farms of 51 municipalities in southern Italy. The presence of antibodies against T. gondii and Neospora spp. were detected by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT); a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive....

Prevalence and molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis in wildlife from eastern Poland

Krzysztof Stojecki, Jacek Sroka, Simone M. Cacciò, Tomasz Cencek, Jacek Dutkiewicz, Paweł Kusyk

Folia Parasitologica 62:042 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.042

Faecal samples from 162 wild animals were collected from 32 distinct sites of Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland (eastern Poland). The presence of Giardia duodenalis (Stiles, 1902) was assessed by a Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA) and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing of a fragment of the beta-giardin gene. DFA showed the presence of cysts of G. duodenalis in 12 of 162 faecal samples (7%), namely in four wild boars (15%), four foxes (19%), two roe deer (4%), and two wolves (29%). PCR identified 34 of the 162 (21%) samples as positive, including 11 wild boars (41%), five red deer (18%), 11 roe deer (23%), four moose (17%), two...

The influence of latent toxoplasmosis on women's reproductive function: four cross-sectional studies

©árka Kaňková, Jaroslav Flegr, Pavel Calda

Folia Parasitologica 62:041 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.041

Several studies have investigated the association between infection with Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908), pregnancy and fertility, but the results of studies focused on the fertility are rather ambiguous. Here we report results of four new cross-sectional studies. The studies were performed in the General University Hospital, Prague (study A with n = 1 165, and study C with n = 317), in private clinics of the Centre of Reproductive Medicine, Prague (study B with n = 1 016), and in a population of Czech and Slovak volunteers from the Facebook page 'Guinea Pigs' willing to participate in various basic science studies (study D with...

Two new species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky et Boeger, 2002 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker) and L. argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Teleostei: Lutjanidae) in the South China Sea

Yuan Sun, Tingbao Yang

Folia Parasitologica 62:040 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.040

Euryhaliotrema russellum sp. n. and Euryhaliotrema tenuiaccessorium sp. n. are described from the gills of Lutjanus russellii (Bleeker) and L. argentimaculatus (Forsskål), respectively, in the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema russellum sp. n. differs from all other members of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky et Boeger, 2002 by its unique male copulatory organ, a straight tube with a bulbous base and without an accessory piece. Euryhaliotrema tenuiaccessorium sp. n. differs from its congeners by having a copulatory organ with a bulbous base, a meandering copulatory tube with clockwise coil having less than...

Studies on ascaridid, oxyurid and enoplid nematodes (Nematoda) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana

Frantiąek Moravec, Liesl L. Van As

Folia Parasitologica 62:039 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.039

Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, eight species (five adult and three larval) of nematodes belonging to the Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Enoplida were collected from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, namely Falcaustra similis Moravec et Van As, 2004, Atractidae gen. sp. (only female) (both Cosmocercoidea), Cucullanus sp. (only female) (Seuratoidea), Cithariniella longicaudata sp. n., Synodontisia annulata sp. n. (both Oxyuroidea), Contracaecum sp. third-stage larvae, third-stage larvae of Galeiceps sp. (both Ascaridoidea) and Eustrongylides sp. fourth-stage larvae (Dioctophymatoidea)....

Passive sinking into the snow as possible survival strategy during the off-host stage in an insect ectoparasite

Sirpa Kaunisto, Hannu Ylönen, Raine Kortet

Folia Parasitologica 62:038 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.038

Abiotic and biotic factors determine success or failure of individual organisms, populations and species. The early life stages are often the most vulnerable to heavy mortality due to environmental conditions. The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi Linnaeus, 1758) is an invasive insect ectoparasite of cervids that spends an important period of the life cycle outside host as immobile pupa. During winter, dark-coloured pupae drop off the host onto the snow, where they are exposed to environmental temperature variation and predation as long as the new snowfall provides shelter against these mortality factors. The other possible option is to passively sink...

Cystoidosoma hermaphroditus sp. n., the first representative of the quill mite family Ascouracaridae (Acari: Astigmata: Pterolichoidea) from an owl (Aves: Strigiformes)

Fabio Akashi Hernandes, Barry M. OConnor

Folia Parasitologica 62:037 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.037

The mite family Ascouracaridae Gaud et Atyeo, 1976 contains large-sized mites (mostly > 1 mm) which live inside the quills of birds of several orders. To date, no representative of this family has been found associated with the order Strigiformes (owls). In this paper, a new species of this family, Cystoidosoma hermaphroditus sp. n., is described from the tropical screech owl, Megascops choliba (Vieillot) (Aves: Strigiformes) from Brazil. This species is unique in having an external spermaduct, a primary duct and a rudimentary bursa copulatrix present in males. This is the first astigmatan feather mite described from...

The feather louse genus Mulcticola Clay et Meinertzhagen, 1938 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from Brazil, with descriptions of five new species and catalogue for species described in the genus

Michel P. Valim, Kamila M. D. Kuabara

Folia Parasitologica 62:036 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.036

Five new species of Mulcticola Clay et Meinertzhagen, 1938 are described and illustrated from Brazil. These new species and their hosts are: Mulcticola sicki sp. n. from the sand-coloured nighthawk, Chordeiles rupestris rupestris (Spix), Mulcticola bacurau sp. n. from the common pauraque, Nyctidromus albicollis (Gmelin), Mulcticola tendeiroi sp. n. from the long-trained nightjar, Macropsalis forcipata (Nitzsch), Mulcticola piacentinii sp. n. from the short-tailed nighthawk, Lurocalis semitorquatus semitorquatus (Gmelin) (type-host) and L. s. nattereri (Temminck),...

Trichomonosis in Eurasian sparrowhawks in the Czech Republic

Tomáą Kunca, Pavla Smejkalová, Ivan Čepička

Folia Parasitologica 62:035 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.035

Pigeon, doves and songbirds are hosts of the parasite Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878), which causes avian trichomonosis. Raptors are infected when they digest infected prey. A high percentage of the diet of Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus (Linnaeus) is comprised of birds. During the breeding season 2012 and 2013, we clinically tested 298 nestling Eurasian sparrowhawks from urban and rural areas of the Czech Republic for the presence of trichomonads. Sparrowhawk nestlings in the urban area were more infected (32.9%) than in the rural area (12.2%) in 2012 (χ2 = 6.184, P = 0.045). The number of infected nestlings...

Genetic characterisation of microsporidia infecting Indian tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, using morphology and molecular tools

Wazid Hassan, B. Surendra Nath

Folia Parasitologica 62:034 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.034

The utility of inter simple sequence repeat-PCR (ISSR-PCR) assay in the genetic characterisation and elucidation of the phylogenetic relationship of different microsporidian isolates infecting tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury, is demonstrated. A total of 22 different microsporidians collected from the diseased tasar silkworms from Jharkhand state of India were analysed using morphological characters and ISSR-PCR. Observations spores under phase contrast microscope revealed oval to elongate in shape with length ranging from 3.8 μm to 5.1 μm and width from 2.6 μm to 3.3 μm. All the microsporidian isolates except MIJ-1gC...

Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic

Frantiąek Moravec, Tomáą Scholz

Folia Parasitologica 62:033 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.033

This paper summarises the results of parasitological examinations of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic, carried out at the Institute of Parasitology, Czech Academy of Sciences (previously the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences) within the period of 50 years (1958-2008). Even though this survey is limited to the Czech Republic, it provides extensive data probably incomparable with any other study anywhere regarding the number of eels examined and parasites found. A total of 723 eels was examined from 42 localities that belong to all of the three main river drainage systems in the country, i.e. the Elbe, Danube...

A new feather mite of the genus Dolichodectes (Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from Hippolais polyglotta (Passeriformes: Acrocephalidae) in Spain

Sergey V. Mironov, Jorge Doña, Roger Jovani

Folia Parasitologica 62:032 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.032

A new feather mite species, Dolichodectes hispanicus sp. n. (Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae), is described from the Melodious Warbler Hippolais polyglotta (Vieillot) (Passeriformes: Acrocephalidae) in Spain. The new species is closest to the type species of the genus, D. edwardsi (Trouessart, 1885) from the Grear Reed-Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Linnaeus) (Acrocephalidae). Adults of D. hispanicus differ from those of D. edwardsi by dimensional characteristics, in particular, by having shorter aedeagus that does not extend to the anal suckers in males and shorter hysteronotal shield in females. Tritonymphs...

Some nematodes of the genus Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) parasitising amphibians in French Guiana

Yuriy Kuzmin, Louis H. du Preez, Kerstin Junker

Folia Parasitologica 62:031 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.031

Based on material collected from Rhinella cf. margaritifera (Laurenti) and Rhi. marina (Linnaeus) (Anura: Bufonidae) during a parasite survey of the herpetofauna of French Guiana, updated descriptions of Rhabdias androgyna Kloss, 1971 and R. fuelleborni Travassos, 1926 are presented. In addition to metrical data, which may overlap in closely related species, emphasis is placed on qualitative characters. Rhabdias androgyna is distinguished by the unique presence of an outer and inner cephalic cuticular inflation, a shoulder-like broadening of the body at the anterior end, a wide and shallow buccal...

Helminth parasites of Artemia franciscana (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in the Great Salt Lake, Utah: first data from the native range of this invader of European wetlands

Stella Redón, Nicole J. Berthelemy, Yasen Mutafchiev, Francisco Amat, Boyko B. Georgiev, Gergana P. Vasileva

Folia Parasitologica 62:030 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.030

The present study is the first survey on the role of Artemia franciscana Kellogg as intermediate host of helminth parasites in its native geographical range in North America (previous studies have recorded nine cestode and one nematode species from this host in its invasive habitats in the Western Mediterranean). Samples of Artemia franciscana were collected from four sites in the Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, across several months (June-September 2009). A. franciscana serves as intermediate host of five helminth species in this lake. Four of them are cestodes: three hymenolepidids, i.e. Confluaria podicipina (Szymanski,...

Parasite richness in fish larvae from the nearshore waters of central and northern Chile

Gabriela Muñoz, Mauricio F. Landaeta, Pamela Palacios-Fuentes, Zambra López, María Teresa González

Folia Parasitologica 62:029 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.029

In the present study, we determine the presence of parasites in fish larvae collected from nearshore waters along the northern and central coast of Chile. The parasites were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level based on morphological and molecular analyses. The fish sample was composed of 5 574 fish larvae. Of these, 3% harboured only larval ectoparasitic copepods whereas no endoparasites were found in the 1 141 fish evaluated for this group of parasites. The parasitic copepods collected were initially classified as 'morphotypes' according to differences in morphological characteristics. They were then analysed using molecular techniques...

Heliconema anguillae Yamaguti, 1935, a physalopterid nematode found in Japanese eels: taxonomic resurrection with a note on the third-stage larva from intertidal crabs in western Japan

Hirotaka Katahira, Kazuya Nagasawa

Folia Parasitologica 62:028 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.028

A parasitic nematode from the stomach of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica Temminck et Schlegel in western Japan, previously identified as Heliconema longissimum (Ortlepp, 1922), was morphologically re-examined and compared with the previous descriptions. In addition, the third-stage larva of this nematode is described, based on the specimens of encapsuled larvae found in musculature of two crabs, Hemigrapsus sp. and Perisesarma bidens (De Haan), caught from the upper-intertidal zone of the same locality. As a result of the morphological observation, seven pairs of postcloacal papillae in adult males are confirmed. This matches...

Ultrastructure of the anterior organ and posterior funnel-shaped canal of Gyrocotyle urna Wagener, 1852 (Cestoda: Gyrocotylidea)

Larisa G. Poddubnaya, Roman Kuchta, Glenn A. Bristow, Tomáą Scholz

Folia Parasitologica 62:027 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.027

Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, ultrastructure of the anterior organ and posterior funnel-shaped canal of Gyrocotyle urna Wagener, 1852 (Cestoda: Gyrocotylidea) from ratfish, Chimaera monstrosa (Holocephali), was studied for the first time. The proper anterior organ is localised at a short distance (about 170 µm) from an apical pore surrounded by a receptor field, whereas its distal end is marked by a muscular sphincter. The tegumental surface of this organ is covered with short filitriches of irregular length; large area of muscle layers traverse beneath the tegumental layer. The funnel-shaped canal of G....

Morphological and attachment changes of Lamellodiscus theroni (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) during its post-larval development on fish

Neus Sánchez-García, Juan A. Raga, Francisco E. Montero

Folia Parasitologica 62:026 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.026

Species of the genus Lamellodiscus Johnston et Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) are characterised by a complex haptor bearing many different attachment elements: two pairs of main hooks joined by medial bars, 14 peripheral marginal hooks and one or two lamellodiscs, formed by several overlapping sclerotised plates (lamellae). These haptoral structures appear gradually during parasite development and, therefore, attachment strategies vary with developmental stage. The main aim of this work was to study the developmental changes of Lamellodiscus theroni Amine, Euzet et Kechemir-Issad, 2007 under experimental conditions, with special...

An additional genus and two additional species of Forticulcitinae (Digenea: Haploporidae)

Michael J. Andres, Stephen S. Curran, Thomas J. Fayton, Eric E. Pulis, Robin M. Overstreet

Folia Parasitologica 62:025 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.025

Forticulcita platana sp. n. and Forticulcita apiensis sp. n. are described from Mugil liza Valenciennes in Argentina, and from Mugil cephalus Linnaeus in Salt Springs, Florida, USA, respectively. Supplemental material relating to the hermaphroditic sac of Forticulcita gibsoni Blasco-Costa, Montero, Balbuena, Raga et Kostadinova, 2009 is provided from a specimen isolated from M. cephalus off Crete, Greece. Forticulcita platana can be distinguished from all species of Forticulcita Overstreet, 1982 except F. gibsoni, based on possessing small pads or gland cells along the hermaphroditic duct. It...

A comparative study of Ligophorus uruguayense and L. saladensis (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) from Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in southern Brazil

Natalia C. Marchiori, Antoine Pariselle, Joaber Pereira Jr., Jean-François Agnèse, Jean-Dominique Durand, Maarten P.M. Vanhove

Folia Parasitologica 62:024 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.024

Representatives of Ligophorus Euzet et Suriano, 1977 were found on the gills of Mugil liza Valenciennes caught in southern Brazil. They were identified as Ligophorus uruguayense Failla Siquier et Ostrowski de Núñez, 2009 and Ligophorus saladensis Marcotegui et Martorelli, 2009, even though specific identification proved to be difficult due to inconsistencies in some diagnostic features reported for these two species. Therefore, a combined morphological and molecular approach was used to critically review the validity of these species, by means of phase contrast and confocal fluorescence microscopical examination of...

Screening for anthelmintic resistance in equid strongyles (Nematoda) in Romania

Mihai Cernea, Romeo T. Cristina, Laura C. Ştefănuţ, Luís M. Madeira de Carvalho, Marian A. Taulescu, Vasile Cozma

Folia Parasitologica 62:023 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.023

Resistance to anthelmintic medication of equid strongyles is a worldwide phenomenon and for this reason systematic investigations of resistant parasite populations are necessary. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of equid strongyles resistant to the anthelmintics used in Romania, as well as the pre-treatment and post-treatment prevalence of species of strongylid nematodes. The Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test was performed between 2010 and 2013 on a total number of 588 horses and 23 donkeys from 26 locations (subgroups). Animals of the first group (I) consisting of subgroups no. 1-11 were treated with...

Proteomic analysis of potential immunoreactive proteins from muscle larvae and adult worms of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected pigs

Justyna Bien, Wladyslaw Cabaj, Bozena Moskwa

Folia Parasitologica 62:022 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.022

The present study was undertaken to identify potentially immunoreactive proteins of the muscle larvae (ML) and adult stage (Ad) of the nematode Trichinella spiralis Owen, 1835. To identify immunoreactive proteins that are specifically recognised by anti-Trichinella antibodies, ML and Ad crude extracts and their excretory-secretory (E-S) products were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot with serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with T. spiralis. A total of 18 bands were selected for final identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To further...

Effect of dietary guild (frugivory and insectivory) and other host characteristics on ectoparasite abundance (mite and nycteribiid) of chiropterans

Albert Luguterah, Eric Adjei Lawer

Folia Parasitologica 62:021 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.021

Ectoparasites are an important factor in bat health due to emergent diseases and their associated threats to global public health. The diverse foraging habits of bats expose them to different surfaces which may influence ectoparasite infestations. In spite of these, most studies often overlook dietary specialisations when observing ectoparasite loads. The present paper quantitatively investigates whether foraging strategies as well as other host characteristics (sex, age, trunk and patagial area) influence ectoparasite (nycteribiids and mites) loads of bats. Ectoparasite counts and morphometric data were taken from mist net captures of bats. We then...

Observations on sporulation of Eimeria bovis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the European bison Bison bonasus: effect of temperature and potassium dichromate solution

Anna M. Pyziel, Aleksander W. Demiaszkiewicz

Folia Parasitologica 62:020 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.020

The present study was designed to determine the influence of temperature and the addition of potassium dichromate solution (K2Cr2O7) on the efficiency of sporulation of Eimeria bovis (Zublin, 1908), a coccidian species most commonly diagnosed in European bison Bison bonasus (Linnaeus). Sporulation under conventional conditions (2.5% dichromate solution, 23 °C) was completed on the fourth day of incubation (control), whereas the oocyst development took two days more at the temperature of 18 °C, and two days less at 28 °C. Additionally, experimental sporulation of E. bovis at the temperature of 23...

Damselflies (Zygoptera) as paratenic hosts for Serpinema trispinosum and its report from turtle hosts from Oklahoma, USA

Crystal M. Wiles, Matthew G. Bolek

Folia Parasitologica 62:019 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.019

Third-stage larvae of the nematode Serpinema trispinosum (Leidy, 1852) were collected from the midgut of four of five species of adult damselflies (Zygoptera) from a non-irrigated restored semipermanent wetland located in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA. Of the four infected damselfly species, prevalence and mean abundance was highest for the southern spreadwing, Lestes disjunctus australis Walker (10%, 0.2 ± 0.8) and lowest for the familiar bluet, Enallagma civile (Hagen) (2.5%, 0.04 ± 0.3); whereas mean intensities were lowest for the citrine forktail, Ischnura hastata (Say) (1.5 ± 0.5) and the eastern...

A new species of Wallinia Pearse, 1920 (Digenea: Allocreadiidae) in Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae) from Mexico revealed by morphology and sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene

Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León, Ulises Razo-Mendivil, Berenit Mendoza-Garfias, Miguel Rubio-Godoy, Anindo Choudhury

Folia Parasitologica 62:018 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.018

Wallinia mexicana sp. n. is described from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi) (Characidae Weitzman), from two localities in northern Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from the two congeneric species, described from small-bodied characids in South and Central America, mainly by the posterior extent of the vitelline follicles (halfway between the posterior testis and the end of the caeca), by having a larger oesophagus, testes that are always oblique, and eye-spot remnants. The distinct status of the new species was confirmed by molecular data (28S rRNA gene sequences). Phylogenetic analysis suggests the new species...

The occurrence of metacercariae of Petasiger (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in an unusual site, within the lateral line scales of cyprinid fishes

Kálmán Molnár, David I. Gibson, Gábor Cech, Melitta Papp, Petra Deák-Paulus, Lajos Juhász, Norbert Tóth, Csaba Székely

Folia Parasitologica 62:017 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.017

During a regular veterinary inspection of fishes from Lake Balaton, Hungary, echinostomatid metacercariae (Digenea), with collar spines characteristic of species of the genera Petasiger Dietz, 1909 and Paryphostomum Dietz, 1909, were found in the lateral line scales of a roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus), an apparently unique site. In a subsequent examination of 586 fishes from 20 different species, similar infections were found in 11 species. The infection was virtually restricted to the lateral line scales, other scales being infected only incidentally. These encysted metacercariae had 27 collar spines, including eight larger...

Characterisation of microsatellite loci in two species of lice, Polyplax serrata (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Polyplacidae) and Myrsidea nesomimi (Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Menoponidae)

Jana Martinů, Veronika Roubová, Milena Nováková, Vincent S. Smith, Václav Hypąa, Jan ©tefka

Folia Parasitologica 62:016 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.016

Polymorphic microsatellite loci were characterised for two louse species, the anopluran Polyplax serrata Burmeister, 1839, parasitising Eurasian field mice of the genus Apodemus Kaup, and the amblyceran Myrsidea nesomimi Palma et Price, 2010, found on mocking birds endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Evolutionary histories of the two parasites show complex patterns influenced both by their geographic distribution and through coevolution with their respective hosts, which renders them prospective evolutionary models. In P. serrata, 16 polymorphic loci were characterised and screened across 72 individuals from four European...

Association between latent toxoplasmosis and clinical course of schizophrenia - continuous course of the disease is characteristic for Toxoplasma gondii-infected patients

Tuncay Çelik, Şükrü Kartalci, Özgür Aytaş, Gülay Aral Akarsu, Harika Gözükara, Süheyla Ünal

Folia Parasitologica 62:015 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.015

The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between various clinical aspects of schizophrenia and seropositivity against Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908). We selected 94 patients with schizophrenia and investigated the seropositivity rate for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies by ELISA. Clinical parameters of schizophrenic patients such as illness type and status, clinical course, awareness of the illness and need for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were compared with their serological status. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 43 (46%) of schizophrenic patients. Chronic patients had a rate...

Host-parasite and phylogenetic relationships of Myxobolus filamentum sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite of Brycon orthotaenia (Characiformes: Bryconidae) in Brazil

Juliana Naldoni, Suellen A. Zatti, Kassia R.H. Capodifoglio, Tiago Milanin, Antônio A.M. Maia, Marcia R.M. Silva, Edson A. Adriano

Folia Parasitologica 62:014 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.014

Myxobolus filamentum sp. n. was found infecting gill filaments of three of 39 Brycon orthotaenia Günther specimens examined (8%), which were taken from the river São Francisco in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Plasmodia of the parasite were white and long, measuring 5 mm in lenght. Mature spores of M. filamentum sp. n. were oval from the frontal view and biconvex from the lateral view, measuring 7.5-9.7 µm (9.0 ± 0.3 µm) in length and 5.2-7.3 µm (6.2 ± 0.4 µm) in width. The polar capsules were elongated and equal in size, measuring 3.8-5.5 µm (4.7 ± 0.3 µm) in length and 1.3-2.2 µm...

Life cycle and settlement of an Australian isolate of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 from rainbow trout

James M. Forwood, James O. Harris, Matt Landos, Marty R. Deveney

Folia Parasitologica 62:013 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.013

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876, a ciliate parasite, is a cosmopolitan and problematic parasite of cultured freshwater fish. Each geographical isolate of I. multifiliis has variations in life cycle timing under different abiotic water conditions, such as temperature and salinity. We assessed the effects of salinity and temperature on the development and the preferred settlement site of a temperate Australian isolate of I. multifiliis. The time until theront release was significantly different between each temperature; development time was longest at 5 °C with a mean time of 189 h and decreased to a mean time of 11.7 h at 30...

Four new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 (Cestoda: Onchoproteocephalidea) from the guitarfish, Rhynchobatus cf. djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Rhynchobatidae), from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

Loghman Maleki, Masoumeh Malek, Harry W. Palm

Folia Parasitologica 62:012 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.012

Four new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 are described from guitarfish, Rhynchobatus cf. djiddensis (Forsskål), collected from the Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf. Acanthobothrium janineae sp. n., a category 1 species, differs from all congeners in category 1 by having a long vagina extending into the vas deferens and different, proglottid and testis number except Acanthobothrium hypermekkolpos Fyler et Caira, 2010. Acanthobothrium fylerae sp. n., a category 1 species, can be differentiated by a combination of characters including the total length, proglottid and testis number, cirrus sac shape, and...

Lemuralges propithecus sp. n. (Acariformes: Psoroptidae), an ectoparasite of the diademed sifaka Propithecus diadema (Primates: Indriidae)

Andre V. Bochkov, Hans Klompen, Randall E. Junge, Cathy V. Williams

Folia Parasitologica 62:011 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.011

A new species of the genus Lemuralges Fain, 1963 (Acariformes: Psoroptidae: Makialginae) is described from the Malagasy lemur Propithecus diadema (Bennett) (Primates: Indriidae) based on all postembryonic instars. This new species differs from the only known species in this genus, Lemuralges intermedius Fain, 1963, by the following features: both sexes of L. propithecus sp. n. show a pair of medioventral projections of the subcapitulum (vs without projections in L. intermedius) and the propodonotal shield is slightly ornamented (vs unornamented); in males the hysteronotal shield is completely covered...

Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting oocytes of the Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Perciformes: Scombridae)

Lamjed Mansour, Abdel Halim Harrath, Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Suliman Y. Al Omar

Folia Parasitologica 62:010 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.010

During a survey the occurrence of Kudoa quraishii Mansour, Harrath, Abd-Elkader, Alwasel, Abdel-Baki et Al Omar, 2014, recently identified in the muscles of the Indian mackerel, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), a species of Kudoa Meglitsch, 1947 infecting oocytes of mature females of the same host fish was found. The new species, for which the name Kudoa saudiensis sp. n. is proposed, infects oocytes that are enlarged with a whitish colour. The parasite develops in vesicular polysporous plasmodia within the oocyte. Infection occurs with a mean prevalence of 20% (7/35) of examined females. Mature spores are quadratic in shape...

Carcinopodacarus polymorphus gen. n. et sp. n. from Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil: a first example of male polymorphism in the family Dermationidae (Acariformes: Analgoidea)

Fabio Akashi Hernandes, Luiz Gustavo A. Pedroso, Andre V. Bochkov

Folia Parasitologica 62:009 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.009

Carcinopodacarus polymorphus gen. n. et sp. n. (Acariformes: Dermationidae: Dermationinae) is described from the guira cuckoo Guira guira (Gmelin) (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) in Brazil. The new genus differs from the closest genus, Psittophagoides Fain, 1964, by the following features: in both sexes, the anterior spines of trochanters I and II are absent (vs present in Psittophagoides), setae d2 are distinctly developed (vs only alveoli), and genual setae mGI are absent (vs present); in males, the hysteronotal shield is split transversally at the level of trochanters III (vs hysteronotal...

Life cycle of Hepatozoon affluomaloti sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) in crag lizards (Sauria: Cordylidae) and in culicine mosquitoes from South Africa

Johann Van As, Angela J. Davies, Nico J. Smit

Folia Parasitologica 62:008 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.008

A new haemogregarine species Hepatozoon affluomaloti sp. n. is described from erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of crag lizards Pseudocordylus melanotus (Smith) and Pseudocordylus subviridis (Smith) (Sauria: Cordylidae) from mountainous regions in the Eastern Free State, South Africa. This species can be distinguished from all other congeners based on its large size, staining properties and life cycle development in its vector, Culex (Afroculex) lineata (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae). Mature gamonts stain mostly uniformly pinkish-purple with Giemsa, sometimes containing darker azurophilic granules anterior...

Ultrastructure and phylogeny of Glugea nagelia sp. n. (Microsporidia: Glugeidae), infecting the intestinal wall of the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Actinopterygii: Serranidae), from the Red Sea

Abdel-Azeem S. Abdel-Baki, Saleh Al-Quraishy, Sónia Rocha, Mohamed A. Dkhil, Graça Casal, Carlos Azevedo

Folia Parasitologica 62:007 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.007

A new microsporidian species of the genus Glugea Thélohan, 1891 parasitising the marine teleost fish Cephalopholis hemistiktos Rüppell, collected from the Red Sea in Saudi Arabia, is described on the basis of microscopic and molecular procedures. Spherical and whitish xenoma were observed adhering to the intestinal wall. The numerous spores contained within these xenoma, were ovoid to pyriform and measured 4.3-6.0 µm (5.1 µm) in length and 1.8-2.9 µm (2.2 µm) in width. The spore's wall was composed of two thick layers, which were thinner in the area contacting the anchoring disk. The latter appeared at the spore's...

A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda), first parasite found in the driftwood catfish Tocantinsia piresi (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Brazil

Philippe Vieira Alves, Alain de Chambrier, Tomáą Scholz, José Luis Luque

Folia Parasitologica 62:006 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.006

Frezella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Frezella vaucheri sp. n. from poorly known auchenipterid fish, Tocantinsia piresi (Miranda Ribeiro), from the Xingú River, one of the principal tributaries of the lower Amazon River in Brazil. The new genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because of the medullary position of the testes, ovary (yet some follicles penetrate to the cortex on the dorsal side), vitelline follicles and uterus. It differs from other proteocephaline genera in the morphology of the scolex, which includes a metascolex composed of two distinct zones: anterior, strongly wrinkled part posterior to the suckers, and posterior,...

How females of Achtheinus spp. (Pandaridae: Siphonostomatoida) attach to their elasmobranch hosts with notes on their effects on the hosts' fins

Susan M. Dippenaar, Anine Jordaan

Folia Parasitologica 62:005 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.005

Copepods of the genus Achtheinus Wilson, 1908 (Pandaridae) are parasites of elasmobranchs that attach to their fins, gill slits and around the nostrils. Specimens of Achtheinus pinguis Wilson, 1912 were collected and examined using histology and scanning electron microscopy to determine their way of attachment to the host and the possible effect on the host. They insert their antennae deep into the dermis of the shark's skin, which causes the most damage due to possible tissue compression and/or fibrosis as well as rupture of the connective tissue. Additionally, the presence of the copepod on the skin causes cell erosion of the epidermal...

Developmental stages and fecundity of Lepeophtheirus simplex (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on bullseye puffer fish (Sphoeroides annulatus)

Francisco Neptalí Morales-Serna, Ana Inés Rivas-Salas, Samuel Gómez, Emma Josefina Fajer-Ávila

Folia Parasitologica 62:004 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.004

Lepeophtheirus simplex Ho, Gómez et Fajer-Avila, 2001 is a parasite of Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns), an economically important fish species, with potential for aquaculture, in northwestern Mexico. The goal of this study was to describe the developmental stages under experimental conditions and seasonal fecundity of this parasite on wild fish. There are two naupliar, one copepodid, two chalimus and two pre-adult stages preceding the adult of L. simplex. The results support previous findings, which point out that the life cycle of the caligid copepods includes only six post-naupliar stages. The generation time from egg extrusion to adult...

The taxonomic identity and phylogenetic relationships of Cercaria pugnax and C. helvetica XII (Digenea: Lecithodendriidae) based on morphological and molecular data

Olena Kudlai, Virmantas Stunľėnas, Vasyl Tkach

Folia Parasitologica 62:003 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.003

The present study analysed the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of two species of xiphidiocercariae of the ʻmicrocotylaeʼ group, Cercaria pugnax La Valette St. George, 1855, from Viviparus viviparus (Linnaeus) in the Ukraine and Cercaria helvetica XII Dubois, 1928 from Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus) in Lithuania. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the ITS2 region and partial 28S gene of the nuclear rDNA revealed that both these xiphidiocercariae belong to the Lecithodendriidae Lühe, 1901 and represent larval stages of lecithodendriids parasitic in bats. Cercaria helvetica...

Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa) in children and cattle in Romania

Patrícia Manuela Vieira, Narcisa Mederle, Maria Luísa Lobo, Kálmán Imre, Ovidiu Mederle, Lihua Xiao, Gheorghe Darabus, Olga Matos

Folia Parasitologica 62:002 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.002

To investigate the transmission of species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1907 in Timis County, Romania, 48 isolates of Cryptosporidium coccidia from 11 children, 29 calves and eight pigs were characterised by molecular analysis of two loci (SSU rRNA and 60-kDa glycoprotein gene). Overall, 22 isolates were amplified and sequence analyses revealed that all isolates were Cryptosporidium parvum Tyzzer, 1912. Two subtype families were identified, IIa and IId. Subtype IIdA22G1 (n = 4) was the single C. parvum subtype found in children. Subtypes found in calves included IIdA27G1 (n = 8), a novel subtype, IIdA25G1 (n = 5), IIdA22G1...

Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the trematode Notocotylus noyeri (Digenea: Notocotylidae), a parasite of Microtus arvalis (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

Papa Ibnou Ndiaye, Jordi Torres, Catarina Eira, Vladimir V. Shimalov, Jordi Miquel

Folia Parasitologica 62:001 (2015) | 10.14411/fp.2015.001

In the present paper, we describe the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the notocotylid Notocotylus noyeri (Joyeux, 1922) by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature spermatozoon of N. noyeri exhibits the general pattern described in the majority of digeneans: two axonemes of the 9 + "1" pattern of the Trepaxonemata, nucleus, mitochondria, parallel cortical microtubules, spine-like bodies and ornamentation of the plasma membrane. The glycogenic nature of the electron-dense granules was evidenced applying the test of Thiéry. The ultrastructural features of the spermatozoon of N. noyeri present some differences in...